Precious metals scams? High demand for gold and silver has some companies inflating pricing for “numismatic” coins and bars… learn before you buy

Image: Precious metals scams? High demand for gold and silver has some companies inflating pricing for “numismatic” coins and bars… learn before you buy

(Natural News) For the laymen shopper and potential investor in precious metals, navigating the current market can be quite the roller coaster of a ride, which could turn out to be very good or very bad, depending on who you’re dealing with and of course, good timing.

For past three years, there has been an unprecedented demand for precious metals, including gold and silver coins and bars. Premiums have been driven up above the (spot) price, due to demand outpacing supply, and time needed for production. Now, since suppliers have caught up, over the holidays, wholesalers have an oversupply of bullion inventory, and premiums are plummeting.

That’s because an over-correction is happening now for sales of gold and silver. Interest rates are high. This “fire sale” may continue through February and into March, but then premiums might come back up due to general costs and inflation. General advice coming from the sellers is that it’s a good time to acquire gold and silver, but do your “homework” to get the most ounces for the money you invest, say the experts, and be sure it has liquidity in the market (stick to standard, popular products).

Avoiding bait-and-switch tactics for gold and silver products

People are now getting fooled with bait-and-switch sales tactics for gold and silver products. It’s nothing new, as it’s been happening for the past few decades, but position now is ripe for the “taking,” especially with so many “green” buyers and people hearing more about the US dollar collapsing, future inflation skyrocketing, and other prime factors.


Just like with car sales, there are precious metal sales people who might lure you in to some “phenomenal” deal that just sounds too good to believe, or hype up some “numismatic” collection that’s massively over-priced to uneducated and uninformed buyers.

Upon digging further into the market, buyers will find semi-collectible coins that are “numismatic” – Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, tokens, paper money, medals and related objects. There are “proof” gold eagle semi-numismatic coins, and “Proof” silver American eagle coins.

There are also exceptions to bullion – coins that are “specialized” for authenticity, but marked up FAR ABOVE comparable bullion coins of similar comparison. Some salespeople are steering consumers into buying these under “bait-and-switch” schemes that deprive people of the actual ounces of metal they were hoping to get for their dollars.

Red flags and inflated pricing for certain numismatics

Customers (retail market buyers) could lose $300 to $500 per ounce (on gold) trying to liquidate the same coin just days after buying certain numismatics at inflated pricing.

Red flags to watch for: Does the company avoid publishing their pricing online? If so, big red flag. Are they transparent? If not, big red flag. Work with companies that publish prices publicly and don’t try to steer you away from getting the most ounces per dollar unless you specifically want collectibles and numismatics.

People who are new to precious metals are often not educated about the industry, and while looking for someone to help them, they can easily be taken advantage of by companies that are out to rook them for their “precious metal” investments. Experts say that “smart money” is going into gold now. Central banks are buying gold in a massive way right now, at 80% more than just two years ago (about 400 tons per quarter).

Don’t forget, in a landmark ruling just recently, two former JPMorgan Chase employees were found guilty of racketeering and conspiracy, for manipulating the market of precious metals. The two guilty bankers engaged in illegal “spoofing,” a tactic where they used computer algorithms to disrupt trading activity and create artificial pricing for precious metals. Gold and silver are highly manipulated commodities on paper, and the paper market manipulation affects the “spot” prices but doesn’t have total control over the real-world price which is spot + premiums.

“The number of investigations, legal cases, class actions and financial headlines involving precious metals manipulation are now so pervasive that it’s hard to keep track of which cases are in motion and which investment banks are under scrutiny at any given time,” reported Bullion Star three years ago. Watch this interviews with Chris Olsen and the Health Ranger for more insight:

Sources for this article include:

Secret factory in Poland now repairing Ukrainian armor, artillery and equipment to send it back to the front lines

Image: Secret factory in Poland now repairing Ukrainian armor, artillery and equipment to send it back to the front lines

(Natural News) The longer the war between Russia and Ukraine drags on, the more likely other nations will become directly involved in the combat there.

Already, other countries in and around Ukraine are beginning to get more involved, and that includes neighboring Poland, where a factory has been established to repair Ukrainian armor and artillery damaged in battle.

The factory, according to The Wall Street Journal, is located in an undisclosed area surrounded by run-down buildings, where there are Polish technicians working 24-7 to repair the Ukrainian equipment so that it can be shipped back to the front lines.

“Mechanics buzz around the football-field-sized workshop housing three AHS Krab guns, the air thick with the smell of metal dust and automotive grease. Two of the Krabs, which look like tanks but are self-propelled 155mm howitzer guns, are missing parts of their caterpillar tracks and are riddled with bullet holes and contorted metal,” the report says.

But another Krab system is fully functional, “sparkling clean,” and sitting nearby, ready to be put aboard a ferry back to Ukraine along a route where the largest transfer of arms in Europe since World War II has taken place. The report added that each weapon can take as long as two months to repair; technicians who work on the equipment have to pass multiple layers of security checks before they can gain access to the building, the location of which the WSJ has agreed not to disclose, for obvious security reasons.

Besides repairing the equipment in Poland, mechanics and technicians there are constantly in contact with their Ukrainian counterparts, most of whom were civilians before the war, instructing them via encrypted apps how to fix everything from tanks to missiles, the WSJ reported.


“That one actually arrived here in the worst condition we have seen,” engineer Miros?aw Surowaniec said as he pointed to the newly revitalized Krab, one of 10 guns that have been repaired in recent months. “The entire gun barrel was missing, the body badly damaged.”

The outlet noted further:

The maintenance and repair of munitions is a major challenge in a war that is burning through arms at the fastest pace since Nazi Germany clashed with Soviet Russia on the same territory almost 80 years ago.

The scale of the previously unreported Polish armaments operation highlights the complexity of a maintenance challenge that is about to grow far larger. On Wednesday, the Biden administration announced plans to send 31 M1 Abrams tanks to Ukraine, joining European allies who will send as many as 100 German-made Leopard 2 tanks.

Already, Polish officials anticipate that any damaged Abrams tanks — which are not yet built, by the way, and aren’t likely to arrive in Ukraine for months — will end up in the Western Polish city of Poznan, “making the former Soviet satellite state the leading edge of a maintenance operation that stretches to the Czech Republic, Romania and Bulgaria,” the outlet reported. In addition, Poland will provide a key, crucial role in maintaining and repairing the Leopard tanks because the country’s own arms industry is extremely experienced with them.

“It is safe to assume that Poland is a leader when it comes to servicing the equipment being used by the Ukrainians in the battlefield,” Tomasz Smura, a military technologies expert with the Casimir Pulaski Foundation, an independent think tank in Poland’s capital of Warsaw, told the WSJ.

The fact that a factory has been established and is being supplied, obviously, in neighboring Poland indicates that the war isn’t going to be over anytime soon. But it also means that NATO is directly involved in fighting Russia, even if NATO countries don’t have a single soldier deployed in Ukraine (which is hard to believe, given the special operations capabilities of the U.S. alone).

World War III is just one mistake away from starting.

Sources include:

Clean Air and Demand

 By Anna Von Reitz

The first thing that I want to observe is that neither I nor any other Federation Officer ever suggested that anyone join a Private Membership Association (PMA).  Any PMA. Ever.  
As the word “Association” should suggest, that is a group for U.S. British Territorial Citizens.  We,  Americans, don’t do “associations” or “societies” and we certainly don’t voluntarily “register” anything.   
If you are an ASN, you have the right and ability to join a PMA, if you want to, but that’s a private matter, like joining a golf club.
So joining or not joining a PMA is a private choice. It has nothing to do with the American Government, our Federation, or anything else we are doing in our State Assemblies — and never did. 
Second observation: a few ASNs in Arizona and California joined the Global Family PMA and liked it, so they talked it up among their friends in other Assemblies. This was just them talking privately, not in any official capacity at all, about something they discovered and liked, much like you might “share the news” about a new skin care product.   
Because people meet each other through their Assemblies it may have given the impression that joining the Global Family PMA was associated with the Assembly process somehow, but it never was, and I took pains on several occasions to make that distinction between the Assembly and any PMA perfectly clear. 
Third observation: partially because of the talk about all the positive talk about the Global Family PMA among members, I met and talked with the leadership of the Global Family Group and we began talking about — as a separate issue entirely — rebuilding the international trade banks and connecting them with the rest of the world.  This is a completely separate topic having nothing to do with the pre-existing Global Family PMA. 
Fourth observation: when we announced the formation of the Blue Dot Bank System and the concepts behind it, some people who were afraid of the banking collapse and in favor of the gold-backed currency rushed at us wanting to put their money in a safe bank.  I explained repeatedly that it would take time to build a completely separate bank system, issue American currency, and do everything else needed.  As months went on and the external situation with the commercial banks deteriorated, this group became more strident and anxious.  They wanted a safe bank and they wanted it NOW.  
Fifth observation: Global Family Group agreed to open up their PMA Bank to give these people a guaranteed safe haven, but they also explained in all their literature and their video presentations, that members would not be able to get money out of the PMA Bank until the new international trade bank was launched. The funds would be safe havened and locked down.  Both verbally and in writing, this was presented to everyone who took advantage of the opportunity to “safe haven” their Federal Reserve Note deposits.  
The advantage of rat-holding their Federal Reserve Note deposits was two-fold.  First, the private PMA Bank guaranteed no “bail ins” or seizures of depositor’s accounts.  Second, even if the Federal Reserve Notes became worthless overnight (which is exactly what the IMF threatened two weeks ago), the PMA Bank would credit the deposits as  lawful money in the new international trade bank system when it opened.  
I have reviewed the literature and the videos and can confirm that each and every one of the people who opened an account in the PMA Bank and who deposited money in those accounts was made aware of the conditions and the benefits of “safe havening” their funds. 
Sixth observation: everyone who had established a profile on the LRS or LRO system as an American was eligible to join the credit side of the new international trade bank system last August.  Prepaid credit cards were ready to issue.  And on the very day that the LRS data was due to download and populate accounts and generate the cards and the whole process was to be set in motion, the LRS was collapsed due to internal food-fighting between the LRS and LRO.  
The LRO would have been next in line to download and populate accounts and get cards.  Instead, they ruined it for everyone.  We have the names and the faces and the IPN addresses responsible for the “run” on the LRS that caused Brett to shut it down. 
Seventh observation: this significantly delayed everything for everyone, including those who had safe havened deposits of FRNs in the private Global Family PMA Bank, which they would have been able to access along with the prepaid credit accounts.  
Eighth observation:  this brou-ha-ha between the LRS and LRO which was totally egotistical and unnecessary from the very start, hurt everyone, whether they had sense enough to realize that they were hurt or not.  In fact, it hurt everyone on a worldwide basis, because the LRS was designed to help everyone everywhere on Earth establish an account and receive pre-paid credit that they are owed. 
Ninth observation: this setback delayed progress and greatly increased expenses and technical requirements but as we were faced with having to build a replacement International Recording Service to be able to serve Offshore and Ex-Pat Americans and people from all around the world in need of recording service, the decision was made to automate it and make it more user friendly, to extend the block chain, and launch secure satellite networks. This has taken months and in the meantime, people who safe havened money in the PMA Bank got antsy for it, wanting access even though they knew that was not the deal they made.  
Tenth observation: throughout this saga, there has been a variety of options available to people.  They could open up an account in the PMA Bank and safe haven their funds for the duration. They could also leave their money in Wells Fargo and hope for the best.  They could open accounts in the PMA Bank or the new International Trade Bank system and simply leave them empty or with a token deposit of $5, so as to have the accounts ready to go. Many people have chosen to do exactly that. 
Eleventh observation: those who pushed to safe haven their funds in the Global Family PMA Bank were actually pushing for a big favor from the PMA Bank, because for the bank, their deposits are a liability.  They deposited “notes” —I.O.U.s from a bankrupt corporation— and the PMA Bank guaranteed that their deposits would be locked down safe from bail-ins and honored as cash once the new bank system kicked off.  
Put bluntly, these pushy individuals shoved themselves and their needs to the front of the line and even though they were told that the new system wasn’t ready and told that they would not be able to access any funds they put in safe haven status, everything was about them. their fears, and their needs. They were more than willing to impose upon the Global Family PMA Bank and make it liable, so long as they got the safety they craved. 
Twelfth observation: no doubt many people acted in good faith, especially small depositors, who thought that the opening of the trade banks was imminent and were unprepared for the delay caused by the LRS shutting down.  Others were just being selfish and imposing on Global Family’s PMA Bank to cover their tails — “using” the PMA Bank, and not in the good sense of that word.   
Thirteenth observation: we soldiered on.  We overcame the setbacks. We built a whole new international recording system and were just getting that ready to launch when…. once again, the same group of people who shoved themselves to the fore and pushed to get safe haven accounts in the PMA Bank in the first place, started more fearful selfish crap rolling. 
Fourteenth observation:  now, these same people are all upset because they find out that they can’t just access the funds that they safe havened in the PMA Bank — as if this is any news to them?  As if they didn’t push to get the bank to set up safe haven accounts for them?  As if the conditions weren’t clearly explained in the videos everyone was required to watch and also presented in print when they opened their PMA Bank safe haven accounts?  
Fifteenth observation: these same people pushed the PMA Bank to set up accounts for them that are a liability and a disadvantage to the PMA Bank, under the known condition that they leave those funds dormant until the new banks open.  And then they have the brass eggs to make accusations against the Global Family PMA Bank that they imposed upon, because they want to violate a clear cut contractual agreement they made and withdraw their funds prior to the opening of the trade banks?  
Sixteenth observation: now these same people are going around saying that they have proof that Hunter and the Global Family Group are setting up a Ponzi Scheme.  They need to come forward with their “proof” right now, or they need to sit down, shut up, and take their lumps.  
Seventeenth observation: these same people are making a big “to do” over the fact that Hunter and Global Family have changed their phone numbers and emails, too, but all these same people had cause to know that this was planned as part of the build up and expansion of the new recording system and the actual opening of the prepaid credit side of the banks. They have no excuse for using this pre-planned change to flame fears, any more than they have cause to complain because their safe haven funds have in fact been safe havened according to their own desire and for their own advantage according to the contracts they signed. 
Eighteenth observation: all this nonsense has been used to create more unnecessary drama and upset and fear-mongering and has somehow been used to blame me and Harold and various other parties as if we had anything to do with it, when we don’t and never have had anything to do with the PMA Bank, the agreements these people made as PMA members, or any of it.   Zero. Nada. 
Time for everyone to get their heads screwed on straight or get their blocks knocked off.  
People created those PMA Bank accounts for their own selfish advantage to gain security for themselves and their funds. They got precisely what they wanted.  Now they want to blame the bank— which took the liability off their shoulders— and this is just more of the typical Satanist bull crap of blaming the victim.  I would defend the bank in this case, even if it was Wells Fargo.  
Nineteenth observation:  I can guarantee that the Global Family Group is serious-minded about the goals of the new trade bank system and highly skilled.  They are not deeply enmeshed in the commercial bank system, which is an advantage, given the work that they are now engaged in. Why haven’t I hired or invited in a lot of high level bankers in the commercial bank system?  For the very good reason that they are too indoctrinated to be of much help in building something completely different and new.  In many cases, they can’t unwrap their training enough to conceptualize a trade bank and pre-paid credit. 
Now, if y’all think that clinging to the old system is possible, be my guest and go down with the ship. If you are done with selfishness, fear, greed, stupidity, and gossip —ready for something brand new and wonderful, stand by. 
And in any event, know that: (1) the people spreading all this garbage are not being honest about what they did or why they did it; (2) those people trying to connect me or the Federation with their own activities– imposing upon the Global Family PMA Bank to provide them with safe haven and then welching on their own contract— are liars.
Plain and simple.  
In the next few days, I am told that the PMA Bank will be back online and ready to contact via the new independent communication system— new emails, new phones, etc.  And all in our own control.  Our own servers. Our own satellites. 
Those who were first shall be last, and those who were last shall be first.  

See this article and over 4000 others on Anna’s website here:

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CDC Reports Hundreds of Guillain-Barre Cases with mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination

By Peter A. McCullough, MD, MPH

One of the early product warnings came in July 2021 with COVID-19 vaccination was Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) or life-threatening ascending paralysis with the Janssen adenoviral COVID-19 vaccine. Using VAERS, Abara et al reported 211 cases of GBS submitted from December 2020 through January 2022 occurred with mRNA vaccines (Pfizer, Moderna) presenting with symptoms 8-10 days after taking the shot.

Abara WE, Gee J, Marquez P, Woo J, Myers TR, DeSantis A, Baumblatt JAG, Woo EJ, Thompson D, Nair N, Su JR, Shimabukuro TT, Shay DK. Reports of Guillain-Barré Syndrome After COVID-19 Vaccination in the United States. JAMA Netw Open. 2023 Feb 1;6(2):e2253845. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.53845. PMID: 36723942.

Of note, only 16% of cases reported by the patients themselves to the CDC leaving the majority to be reported by healthcare workers or the vaccine companies. The mean age was 59 years and sadly, 10 patients died after developing GBS. All but one of these cases died on the mechanical ventilator suggesting the systemic syndrome was far more lethal than GBS survived in other conditions (West Nile virus, Campylobacter jejuni, influenza vaccine etc.) These data strongly support FDA warnings for GBS in the FAQ for EUA vaccination and in all consent forms. This illness is a disaster for so many patients causing severe short and sometimes long term disability.

These findings are a severe blow to the mRNA vaccine development programs active in several companies including Moderna who recently received FDA Breakthrough Therapy Designation for their investigational respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine candidate, mRNA-1345, in adults aged 60 years or older. Data safety monitoring boards and advisory committees should be on a alert for GBS which can occur days to weeks after injection with mRNA.

This paper illustrates several points: 1) the CDC believes VAERS is a solid database for research and is using it, 2) the majority of serious events like GBS are reported by healthcare providers and vaccine manufactures, not the patients or families, 3) the FDA/CDC are not updating EUA FAQ or consent documents, thus Americans are not getting fair informed consent with COVID-19 vaccination, 4) GBS is likely to occur to occur with mRNA and should be tagged as a special adverse event of interest in mRNA development programs.

If you find “Courageous Discourse” enjoyable and useful to your endeavors, please subscribe as a paying or founder member to support our efforts in helping you engage in these discussions with family, friends, and your extended circles.

Abara WE, Gee J, Marquez P, Woo J, Myers TR, DeSantis A, Baumblatt JAG, Woo EJ, Thompson D, Nair N, Su JR, Shimabukuro TT, Shay DK. Reports of Guillain-Barré Syndrome After COVID-19 Vaccination in the United States. JAMA Netw Open. 2023 Feb 1;6(2):e2253845. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.53845. PMID: 36723942.

FDA Grants Breakthrough Therapy Designation to Moderna for Investigational RSV Vaccine Feb 2, 2023 Aislinn Antrim, Editor

Alexander Hamilton and Nicholas Biddle: Bankster Syndicate Actors and Made Men

First Bank of the United States, Philadelphia. PHOTO: @PhillyCityRep/Twitter

The Rothschild syndicate utilized two primary operatives to establish a defacto central banking system that was under their control in the early years of the United States: Alexander Hamilton and Nicholas Biddle.

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James Rothschild (1792-1868)

“More than $8 million of the stock of the Bank is held by foreigners who are more dangerous than the military power of an enemy,” declared Andrew Jackson when he revoked the charter of the Second Bank of the United States.

The First and Second Bank of the United States were James Rothschild (1792-1868) projects. Our focus in this post are events and people surrounding the First Bank.

Primary operative No. 1 was Alexander Hamilton (1757–1804), who was born on the British island of Nevis, in the West Indies. His mother was most likely Jewish and his father, James Hamilton, was a non-Jewish Scotsman descended from the House of Hamilton in Ayrshire, Scotland, according to the Jewish Virtual Library.

In the 1760s, Hamilton attended a Jewish school in Nevis that was housed inside a synagogue in Charleston, the island’s capital.

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Alexander Hamilton (1757-1804)

Nevis had a large Jewish community, constituting one-quarter of the white population by the 1720s. As a small boy, he was tutored by a Jewish schoolmistress and had learned to recite the Ten Commandments in the original Hebrew. Hamilton exhibited a degree of respect for Jews that was described by Chernow as “a life-long reverence.” He believed that Jewish achievement was a result of divine providence.

As an American political figure, Hamilton operated in the classic crypto manner, as an Anglican.

Documents in the British Museum prove that Alexander Hamilton received payment from the Rothschilds for his deed in binding the U.S. government and the States to the international bankers.

Hamilton pursued the large-capital plutocratic policies of establishing a national bank, a system of tariffs, friendly trade relations with Britain and a strong central government. He mobilized a nationwide network of friends of the government, especially bankers and businessmen, who formed the Federalist Party.

In 1784, he founded the Bank of New York, one of the oldest still-existing banks in America. He was a boy wonder and made man who, at the age of 20, came out of nowhere to serve a four-year term (1777-1781) as Washington’s chief staff aide.

Also par for the course were compelling indications that Hamilton was part of a homosexual in-group “mafia.” His letters to the Marquis de Lafayette and in particular to John Laurens employed  sentimental literary conventions and alluded to Greek history and mythology. Jonathan Ned Katz, author of “Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the U.S.A.,” reveals Hamilton was in homo-social or more likely homosexual relationships.

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Nicholas Biddle (1786-1844)

After Hamilton was killed in an 1804 duel with Aaron Burr, the mantle was passed to operative No. 2, Nicholas Biddle (1786-1844). Biddle was another young prodigy who, like Hamilton, came out of nowhere. In 1807, Biddle returned home to Philadelphia from Paris.

“Following the Rothschild Formula, Biddle had been careful to reward compliant politicians with success in the business world. Few of them were unwilling to bite the hand that fed them. Even the great Senator Daniel Webster found himself kneeling at Biddle’s throne,” wrote G. Edward Griffin, author of “The Creature From Jekyll Island.”

In 1822, Monroe appointed Biddle as the third president of the Second Bank of the United States. He is best known for his battle with President Andrew Jackson over the rechartering of the Second Bank, but our focus here is more on the First Bank.

The Strange ‘Lone Wolf’ Assassination of British Prime Minister Spencer Perceval

Biddle failed to prevent the withdrawal of the charter of the First Bank of the United States in 1811. Almost immediately bankster interests in The City of London began lobbying for a war. Initially, British Prime Minister Spencer Perceval was in the way.

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Spencer Perceval (1762-1812)

Nathan Mayer Rothschild, who took a big loss, railed, “Teach those impudent Americans a lesson! Bring them back to colonial status!”

Enter one of the first in a long string of strange “lone wolf formula” assassins, one John Bellingham (1769-1812). Bellingham was a ruined, compromised and suicidal businessman cut right out of the Jack Ruby cloth.

Gazette [issue 16605]: John Bellingham, ‘an abandoned and infamous assassin’, ‘with diabolical and unfounded malice’  was arrested and imprisoned in 1804 for supposed insurance fraud while working in Russia. Bellingham had protested and attempted to impeach the governor general on his release a year later, and had pleaded with the British authorities for help. After an additional sentence was served, he was released, but without permission to leave Russia. He petitioned the Russian tsar and was permitted to leave in 1809. Bellingham had spent five years in prison, in most likely appalling conditions, and was set on seeking reparation from the British government. He was unsuccessful.

Bellingham shot and killed Perceval on May 11, 1812.

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John Bellingham
John Bellingham (1769-1812)

After a “hurry up and get rid of him” trial, Bellingham was hung and then made a hero to many a week later. Almost “by the book,” no time was wasted in looking for accomplices. Incredibly, a pay-off subscription was raised for the widow and children of Bellingham, and “their fortune was 10 times greater than they could ever have expected in any other circumstances.” Somebody put the suicidal (or deluded)  Bellingham up to it.

Motive: Andro Linklater in his book “Why Spencer Perceval Had to Die” explains that Perceval had moved strongly to strangle the slave trade. Additionally, the British economy was in depression due to trade blockades against Napoleon. Linklater points out that in January 1812 the desperate Bellingham was flat broke. But from February on, his accounts suggest, he was reasonably flush. There were 20-pound payments rolling in from Thomas Wilson & Co.

Linklater believes that Bellingham was being funded and unwittingly maneuvered by two closely associated men : Thomas Wilson (1767-1852), a London merchant and banker, and Elisha Peck (1789-1851), an American tin manufacturer residing in Liverpool. Peck was a co-founder of Phelps Dodge. By 1830, Peck was almost certainly the largest exporter of tin-plate from Britain, shipping about 51,000 boxes in that year. Wilson was a particularly interesting operative, who was pro-slavery and a defender of the Bank of England. An extensive and long list reveals his various lobbying activities in Parliament. He has City of London banksterism written all over him. However, Peck was not a member of any war party with America and, if used by other forces, would have been a slide or decoy.

The motives and point-of-the-spear players cited by Linklater may have played a key role in Perceval’s assassination, but almost immediately afterward the dirty deed the war parties prevailed. War broke out on June 18, 1812, over grievances and British instigations. The War of 1812 was a series of small battles and shit storms, but ultimately the British blockaded the U.S., took Washington, D.C. and torched the White House.

Winter Watch Takeaway: Was the War of 1812 payback for not renewing the First Bank of the United States charter? Sure looks that way.


Illinois Policy | Jan. 30, 2023

Chronic absenteeism rates are higher in Chicago than statewide, with 49% of low-income Chicago students missing at least 10% of their days in school. That rate has nearly doubled since the pandemic.

Chronic absenteeism in Chicago Public Schools is on the rise: nearly 45% in 2022, according to state data. That compares to a statewide rate of 30%.

The rate is even higher among Chicago’s low-income students, with 49% missing at least 10% of their schooling, according to Illinois State Board of Education data.

The pandemic and 17 months out of the classroom appear to have seriously aggravated the problem.

Absenteeism in CPS was 24% for all students and just over 25% for low-income students in 2019. That was the final full school year before the pandemic shut down in-person learning in CPS schools.