By Anna Von Reitz
From the very beginning those organizing the government of our new country in 1776 could see the need to distinguish “spheres of responsibility, accountability, and influence”.
They rapidly consolidated the interests of the new estates in the soil jurisdiction, reserving unto themselves and the people of their States of America doing business at that time as “the” United States, all control of their daily lives and property as a Nation in each State, and together, collectively, as the United States. This happened based on The Unanimous Declaration of the United Colonies, 1776.
Within three months, they further determined to create a Federation of States doing business as The United States of America, to conduct foreign international business for them, including diplomatic service, and they conveyed to this new Federation their separate and joint authority to act for the new country to establish treaties, trade agreements, international trade accounts and other functions requiring negotiation and responsibility for money. The Federation was established in September of 1776, a scant three months after The Declaration of Independence was issued.
Almost immediately, in January of 1777, the need for a similar organization to serve the local needs of the states in non-diplomatic business capacities began to be discussed, but it would be another four years before those functions were delegated to the Confederation of States (of States) under The Articles of Confederation in 1781.
Prior to this, the original States of America doing business as “the” United States had muddled through numerous “Presidents of the United States” beginning in 1774-75 (First Continental Congress) with Peyton Randolph, followed by: Henry Middleton, John Hancock, Henry Laurens, John Jay, Samuel Huntington, Samuel Johnston (who declined the Honour after being elected) and Colonel Thomas McKean who served as a Congressional Delegate of Delaware during the Second Continental Congress, and as “President of the United States” until the victory at Yorktown in 1783.
If you count Samuel Johnston, that makes eight (8) Presidents of the United States between 1774 to 1783, and only Colonel McKean served as “President” under The Articles of Confederation which were finally ratified in 1781— still during the active fighting of The War of Independence.
After that we saw another raft of “Presidents of the United States” serving under The Articles of Confederation as Confederation Presidents (a separate Presidency for the organic States of the Union represented by the Federation of States doing business as The United States of America shows a similar history).
Once The Articles of Confederation were ratified in 1781 we see Colonel McKean serving in the transition as “President of the United States” and then also in 1781 we see John Hanson of Maryland elected as President of the United States, followed in yearly succession by: Elias boudinot (1782-83), Thomas Mifflin (1783-84), Richard Henry Lee (1784-85), John Hancock (two terms 1785-86), Nathaniel Gorham (1786-87), Arthur St. Clair (1787-88) and Cyrus Griffin (1788-89) and finally, the first President of the United States under The Constitution of the United States, George Washington, 1789.
By my reckoning, and truthfully, that makes George Washington the 16th President of the United States since the office was created prior to The Declaration of Independence in 1774, and the 11th President of the Confederation dba the United States of America since the ratification of The Articles of Confederation in 1781.
Washington was only the “first” President of the United States to serve under the auspices of both The Articles of Confederation and The Constitution of the United States, as the President of the American Federal Republic, which came into being in 1787 and lasted until 1860.
If you ever wondered who accepted Washington’s resignation as Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army, it was Thomas Mifflin.
If you ever wondered how “the United States” could conduct business as both the States of America and the American Federal Republic doing business as “the United States” at one and the same time, wonder no more.
The same States-of-States business organizations that were members of the Confederation jointly operating the business affairs of the States in the National Jurisdiction undertook as a group to oversee and conduct the business of the American Federal Republic in the international Maritime (Commercial) jurisdiction.
It was a natural outgrowth of the power-sharing that officially began in 1781, but was ultimately ill-fated. By the end of the Civil War neither the Confederation nor the American Federal Republic were in operation.
The office of the “President of the United States” had to be redefined yet again, and this time, in terms of the Presidency of the Holy See’s Municipal Government Subcontractor. By 1877, it had ceased to be any kind of public office and had become the “presidency” of a Municipal Corporation in the business of providing governmental services for hire.
And just in case you think I am talking through my hat again, here’s a nice scholarly run down of the history of the office of the President of the United States from other sources:
See this article and over 4000 others on Anna’s website here: www.annavonreitz.com
To support this work look for the Donate button on this website.
How do we use your donations? Find out here.