International Public Claim — Two Sides to Every Story

 By Anna Von Reitz

Yesterday, we reviewed the situation at the end of the American Civil War, how it opened up a vacuum of power that our foreign governmental services subcontractors sought to exploit under conditions of secrecy, and how that led to further corruption, wrong-doing, abuse, and misrepresentation of average Americans and their peaceful civilian government. 
We ended by asking Andrew Bailey, the director in charge of the Bank of England, to return the $33 Trillion Dollars in gold, plus interest, which is the corpus of the Guadalupe Hidalgo Treaty Trust established by the Government of Spain for the benefit of the seven (7) Western States ultimately transferred to The United States by Spain.  
The trust began as a traditional government bond program during the days when Spain claimed the land and soil of these beneficiary States of the Union. 
The bonds were issued with the proviso that the holders could redeem them as land or as gold.  
Once Spain lost the land interest, the bonds could only be redeemed in gold.  To close out its obligations with respect to their administration, the Spanish Government allocated gold bullion sufficient to pay off the bonds and established the Guadalupe Hidalgo Treaty Trust in the Bank of Mexico. 
The Spanish Government realized that our actual government was not in Session, and did not trust the political status of the States nor the Municipal Corporations acting “as” the United States, Inc. and the United States of America, Inc., and even The United States of America, Inc.  
Indeed, the political status of the Western States remained at issue for decades, waiting for the actual Americans to declare their political status, raise their State Assemblies, bring their government into Session and finally enroll the Western States as States of the Union.  
This was finally accomplished as of the first of October 2020.  All the years prior the Western States existed under Territorial Statehood — or as we called them, “States-in-Waiting”.  They are now States of the Union, and fully empowered. 
Likewise, the American Federation of States is fully empowered and in control of the Land Jurisdiction owed to this country.  We are the legitimate Public Trustee  enabled to receive and conduct international business in actual assets and asset-backed currencies, and as such, we have asked Mr. Bailey to expedite the transfer of the Guadalupe Hidalgo Treaty Trust Assets to us, via our chartered International Trade Bank, dba, The Global Family International Trade Bank. 
Our role as the Public Trustee for the Treaty Trust is to work with the beneficiaries, who are the individual States and the living people within their borders, to see to it that this venerable Trust and its assets are used as the Spanish Government intended, to improve the infrastructure of the States and the lives of the people. 
The Bank of England took a proprietary interest as a self-declared custodian in recent years and must now kindly step aside and honor the interests of the actual Public Trustee and the intended Beneficiaries. 
We anticipate that these gold assets and the interest generated from them for more than a hundred years will be used to renovate and replace and improve aging infrastructure, create new water resource capabilities, revitalize schools and hospitals, and open up a host of accessible new integrated medical and traditional health initiatives, and a great deal more.  These investments will vastly improve the lives of people living in these States.  
We thank and are grateful to the Government and the people of Spain who made this possible for their progeny still living in the Western States and all the other people, the children of the pioneer cowboys and gold miners, the children of the Chinese immigrants and of course, the Native people of these States, who will all benefit directly. 
We especially thank the Spanish Government for its wisdom and honesty and long refusal to mistake Municipal Corporations for our Government. 
Now Mr. Bailey and the Board of Governors of the Bank of England need to do their part and recognize their unauthorized position as persons merely presumed to be acting as our custodians and agents in this matter. 
Otherwise, they would be guilty of surreptitious theft, false claims in commerce, and would be acting as Executors de Son Tort at a National and International level.  
We would encourage everyone concerned to be of good cheer and stay calm, as these and other issues remain to be resolved primarily within the international and commercial banking systems.  
We all need to understand that we have more than 150 years worth of such housekeeping to do, and this is only the beginning of a peaceful public recoupment process among responsible Principals. 
We must also understand and keep separate the effects of a global population collapse which is now fully underway.  
The capital investments made now will reflect resources deployed to absorb the losses and damages made inevitable by the population collapse, to prolong the lives of our seniors, to heal the lives of the sick and dying, and to provide a far better future for all our children.  
International Public Claim
Issued by: Anna Maria Riezinger, Fiduciary
                 The United States of America
                  In care of: Box 520994
                  Big Lake, Alaska 99652

17th November 2023

International Public Claim — Two Sides to Every Hamburger

 By Anna Von Reitz

The last couple of days we have been reviewing the history and players and how-we-all-got-into-this Mess.
We’ve been issuing our Public Claims and enforcing our Public Liens, which is both our right and duty.  
Our Public is self-evidently not the British Territorial Public and not the Roman Municipal Public.  
Our Public consists of all the declared and recorded American people living within the borders of our States and our country, and extends to all those merely presumed to be Dual Federal Citizens without their fully disclosed consensual agreement, and who must be deemed unconscionable victims of an attempted National Identity Theft.  
As a practical matter, until our people have full disclosure and make reasonable decisions about their political choices, we presume that the only actual Federal citizenries present are those who directly and currently receive sustainable employment from the Municipal Corporations resident in the District of Columbia and any dependent spouses, and does not automatically include their children born on our land and soil, and does not include retirees, and generally speaking, does not include anyone who was enrolled in the federal Social Security program without actually being a Federal Employee. 
We would also exempt all franchise employees, who have worked for state-of-state organizations without the benefit of full disclosure, military personnel working under contracts that have not been fully disclosed, and federal civil servants who have been laboring under the same conditions of non-disclosure and deceit. 
Virtually nobody in this country has ever had the benefit of full disclosure and understanding of the contracting processes involved, the meaning of registration or the use of the certificates issued to legalize these venal practices of impersonation.
We therefore claim all certificates issued to persons who are not directly employed by the Municipal Corporations housed in the District of Columbia and their direct dependent spouses, who are currently living in this country and whose provenance and lineage or whose naturalization and residency records indicate that they are either Americans born and bred or legally naturalized immigrants who have not been advised of their political options. 
We recognize all these people as presumptive American State Nationals according to our definition of “American State Nationals”.  
We also claim all credit owed to these persons, which is to be returned to them and their progeny for the cancellation of debts and in recognition of their correct status as Employers and Principals and Preferential Creditors.
Some time ago we gave the example of Joe and Joe’s Hamburger Shop. Fred, a Federal Employee, walks in and wants a hamburger, so he gives Joe a “Federal Reserve Note” which is essentially a promise to pay later, also known as an I O.U. 
Joe gives him an actual hamburger, not a photograph of one.  
Joe is left with a piece of paper acknowledging Fred’s debt. On the face of it, this PROMISSORY NOTE is issued by a corporation operating “as” the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA and a bank consortium operating as the FEDERAL RESERVE.  
Joe is not paid for his hamburger (that would require actual gold or silver or other asset-backed currency) and he is not actually in receipt of credit in exchange for his hamburger, so no equitable consideration has been exchanged. 
What Joe is left holding onto, is evidence of the debt owed to him by this unknown corporation and equally unknown association of banks. 
This one-sided and undisclosed commercial transaction is taking place entirely in the realm of Maritime Commerce, under the auspices of the British Monarch and Government of Westminster.  Both Joe and Fred are being “presumed” to be Subjects of the King, using a private military scrip issued for their use as Wards of the British Monarch or as Officers of the British Crown.
The problem is that this system, while very profitable for the British Monarch, the British Crown, and the Pope, is being practiced in deceit and under conditions of fraud and non-disclosure on dry land that actually belongs to poor old Joe.  
What should be happening is that Joe has his own non-Maritime Commercial bank issuing American Credit Certificates in exchange for every Federal Reserve Note. 
In this way, the Zero-sum transactions originally anticipated by the Bretton Woods agreements could be completed without any absurd accumulation of debt, without any bankruptcy fraud against our American Public, and Joe could be properly credited for his hamburger, not left holding onto someone else’s debt as purported payment for actual goods and services.  
When they secretly rolled up the sidewalk on everything else and substituted their British Territorial States of States organizations for ours, the Brits also unlawfully converted all our land jurisdiction Commercial Banks into Maritime Commercial Banks.
Of course, they never told us, nor did they tell most of the affected Commercial Banks, nor did they tell our trading partners in other countries.  Instead, they stealthily embarked on a criminal rampage of secretive commercial mercenary war for profit, and attacked our trading partners under pretense of “war”. 
The Brits simply acted in Gross Breach of Trust and in violation of their Treaties and Service Contracts (the Constitutions) and unlawfully converted our land-based Commercial Banks into Maritime Commerce Banks. 
They also operated under a “Cloak of Secrecy” to do all this.  Not only did they not inform their actual Employers, or seek to protect our persons as required by Article IV of their Service Contract, they deliberately and self-interestedly kept mum and prevented us from responding.
They did this by telling the rest of the world that our government was “in interregnum” and that they had to take charge in response to an “Emergency” — but in fact, our government had to find out about all these cozy arrangements undertaken “for” us, literally, from European gossip and Karen Hudes, acting as a Whistleblower inside the World Bank apparatus.   
Our disloyal incorporated Subcontractors and the guilty Principals benefiting themselves at our expense never said a word, never acted to defend their actual Employers, the American States and People. 
We are now correcting this situation and are issuing our own gold-backed American currency, the American Federation Dollar, through our chartered International Trade Banks, and issuing American Credit Certificates through our land jurisdiction Commercial Banks for the redemption of “US DEBT NOTES” otherwise known as FEDERAL RESERVE NOTES.  
We formally and on the record accepted all debts of the various corporations as credit owed to us prior to the recent bankruptcies, and lodged our claims against the Principals responsible and the treasuries responsible beginning in 1998.  
We claim all the unlawfully converted Maritime Commercial Banks as Commercial Banks owed to us and naturally belonging to our jurisdiction. 
We deny the existence of any emergency powers assumed by the Usurpers responsible for these conditions, or any special extra-territorial powers assumed by their corporate CEOs.
So far as we are concerned, we already paid for every piece of equipment, every man-hour, and every piece of ground; the assets of these corporations and their franchises and their personnel are ours and forfeit, because there was never any other consideration in any of these commercial exchanges and the credit owed to Joe for his hamburger and his labor was never made available to him, either. 
At the end of the day, even the debts accrued by these foreign Municipal Corporations were sloughed off onto poor old Joe, via the Constructive Fraud of undisclosed registration that allowed the Perpetrators to claim that he was part of their “Public” and responsible for their bankruptcy debts.  
Joe and his Hamburger Shop have never been part of the British Territorial Public nor the Roman Municipal Public.  He has always been part of the American Public and has never known or chosen otherwise. 
So, the I.O.U. has landed on the King’s desk, the desk of the Lord Mayor of the Inner City of London, and in the Pope’s lap — where it belongs, for collection.  
Issued by:
Anna Maria Riezinger, Fiduciary
The United States of America
In care of: Box 520994
Big Lake, Alaska 99652

17th November 2023

Public International Notice of Claim

 By Anna Von Reitz

Here was the problem for the Schemers after the armed hostilities of the American Civil War calmed down: they needed our credit to operate on, but our assets and credit both belong to us.  How could they pay themselves using our credit without our permission?  
National Identity Theft. 
The original States of States were inoperable. As a result, the Federal Republic, our American Federal Subcontractor, was also inoperable.  A full one-third of our government was paralyzed.  
This created a vacuum of power that the Schemers, our two foreign Federal Subcontractors, were eager to exploit and control. 
The Schemers certainly couldn’t afford to notify the actual States or the people of this country. If we knew, we’d take action to correct the situation, so they had to work in secret, behind the backs of their employers. 
To the rest of the world, they claimed that our American Government was in “interregnum” and as a result of this, an “emergency” existed in our country, and as an “emergency” measure, they were “assuming” a custodial role (public trusteeship) over the civilian population and our assets. 
The Bounders set up State Trusts, cashiered our land and soil assets and everything else that wasn’t nailed down, substituted their British Territorial States of States for our American States of States, and sat down to feed, like the Weasels in Toad Hall.  
What appeared to be “our” military was in charge of establishing this so-called Protectorate and appeared to be occupying our country to protect the civilian population, but in fact, our military had been unlawfully converted into a foreign Mercenary Force and it was working for foreign interests. 
Now you can better understand what the “cloak of secrecy” was all about.  If we had known, we would have objected and exercised our rights as Owners and Presumed Donors of all these Public Trusts gratuitously named after us. 
The success of their whole plan depended on keeping us ignorant and in the dark, clueless from first to last. 
In the 1920’s the same Con Artists began secretly registering American babies as British Territorial U.S. Citizens.  They did this to remove us from our Native Land and Soil, and subject us to their King — a change in political status that also neatly evaded their Constitutional obligations to us.  
Americans have Constitutional Guarantees, British Territorial Citizens do not. 
In 1937, they issued The Declaration of Interdependence of the Governments in The United States, and the British Territorial “Protectorate” Government began colluding with their old enemies, the Pope’s Municipal Government.  
This collusion allowed the Schemers to authorize the creation of another undisclosed registration process “in our names” and to subject the resulting new US CORPORATION named after us to the foreign Municipal Government’s rules and regulations. 
All of this has taken place behind our backs.  It was all undertaken as a Scheme to impersonate us as “Dual Federal Citizens” and then use this to subject us and gain access to our assets and our credit. 
As of 1937, both foreign Municipal Corporations and all their franchises could pick our pockets at the same time.  
The Territorial Government could lie and pretend that we were their old Municipal enemies, and the Municipal Government could lie and pretend that we were their old Territorial enemies, and harass us and double-charge us both going and coming, because we didn’t “declare ourselves”.  
We, meanwhile, were never made aware of any reason or need to declare our political status. 
In the absence of formal, recorded declarations of political status from us, both sides were free to presume anything they liked about us— and they liked to presume that we owed them lots and lots of credit for all sorts of services we never ordered nor received any benefit from. They liked to presume that we were dangerous insurrectionists.  They liked to illegally confiscate our property and throw us in jail under all these cozy — and false — Legal Presumptions. 
Most of all, they liked to assume custody of our assets and our credit.  
This has led to our Employees going into business for themselves, using us and our assets as collateral backing their enterprises, and using the resulting credit — our own credit — to indebt us. 
As a result of this crazy-making situation, we have been forced to use our Employee’s credit, which is actually our credit, in lieu of paying our bills. They have then charged us interest for this “privilege”  being extended to a British Territorial Person named after us.  And they have charged the Municipal CORPORATION’s taxes to us, too.  
We’ve had our Employees holding our assets under False Pretenses and using them as collateral to borrow credit from the banks, and then back-charging their debts to us via periodically bankrupting their corporations, charging us interest on our own credit the whole time, and assigning the taxes and service fees and utility bills owed by their Municipal CORPORATIONS to us, too.  
These two groups of what appear to be Americans (but both are actually working for foreign interests), have been preying upon and impersonating and mischaracterizing the actual Americans they are supposed to be protecting and serving with good faith.
This has gone on with absolutely no disclosure to the American people.  The British Territorial “United States” and its U.S. Citizens have gotten away with this for 160 years.  The Municipal Partner has done it to us since 1937– 86 years.  
Now you can see why this was all hush-hush and a matter of “National Security” (theirs). You can see the Gross Breach of Trust and Bad Faith involved.  And you can also see why we are owed a blivit-load of both assets and credit returned safely to our own custody and the custody of our civilian government. 
We’ve declared ourselves on the public record and provided our provenance.  
We are claiming back our assets and our credit.  We are claiming back the federal and state-of-state income taxes and property taxes that were “misapplied” to us.  We are claiming back the money we paid for utilities and natural resources that in fact belong to us.  We are here to collect all the “misapplied” interest we were charged on a foreign “National Debt”.  And all the physical assets we are owed, too. 
Send a copy of this to the members of the British Territorial Corporation “Congress” and the Roman Municipal Corporation “Congress” — and most of all, give a copy to the banks, from largest to smallest. 
This Scheme could never work without the collusion of the banks, and it is at the bank level that it has to be dismantled and reversed.  Also give copies to all and any attorneys of your acquaintance, it couldn’t have been done without their assistance and cooperation, either. 
Some people have noted that we are creating an embarrassment for the Pope, as he already gave our land back to the Indians.  But it wasn’t his land to give, was it? The land belongs to our States and our People— all of them.  We are all the inheritors of anything the Pope had a claim to administer, and we have an equal claim.
Some other people have noted that since the Doctrine of Discovery was overturned, it vitiates all “discoveries” as the basis of land ownership, including the discovery of this land by “Native” immigrants in a more distant time. 
Still others, the cynics among us, have noted that trying to give the land back to the Indians is just another divide and conquer strategy designed to sow discord and injustice and create a new basis for prejudice and racism. 
We are all against that, except of course for the British Territorials who created the Reservation System and the Residential Schools and who gave the Indians blankets infected with Smallpox, and traded liquor to them, and tried to destroy their languages and culture and traditions with decades of forced assimilation, and who have always treated all black or brown-skinned people as inferior. 
That’s their British Social Caste System, not ours. 
They were treating all of us as Sheep to be shorn at the same time, so let all that bad karma rest on them. 
As the lawful international government of this country, The United States of America, Unincorporated, is  claiming the right to secure and distribute the the Guadalupe Hidalgo Gold Trust and the related Bonds issued by the Spanish Government for the improvement of infrastructure and success of the people living in seven western States transferred by Mexico to The United States. 
Like many other so-called Historical Trusts and Legacy Trusts, the Guadalupe Hidalgo Trust is owed to our States and all their people, Native and Causian, Hispanic and Chinese alike. 
We call upon Andrew Bailey and the Bank of England to release the corpus and interest owed on the Guadalupe Hidalgo Trust to our unincorporated Federation of States, dba The United States of America since 1776, and our American-chartered trade bank, The Global Family International Trade Bank, for dispersal to the now-enrolled western States of the Union intended to receive the benefit of the Trust.   
I AM and I have asked. 
We similarly claim all Historical and Legacy Trusts containing physical assets, rights, and interests, owed to the American people and the American States of the Union. 
Notice of Claim issued by: 
Anna Maria Riezinger, Fiduciary
The United States of America
In care of: Box 520994
Big Lake, Alaska 99652

November 16th 2023


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Their Language v Our Language

 By Anna Von Reitz

When we, Americans, call ourselves “sovereign citizens” we look like idiots.  When someone else calls us a “sovereign citizen”, they look like idiots.  And when we allow someone to label us a “sovereign citizen” without objection, we all look like idiots.  
The words “sovereign” and “citizen” are mutually exclusive in meaning.  You can’t be a “sovereign” and a “citizen” at the same time.  This results in what is known as an oxymoron.  Oxymorons are gibberish. 
What we are and what we need to clearly say to our employees, is that we are “foreign sovereigns” — that is, foreign with respect to them and the District of Columbia.  
Oddly enough, this is language they recognize. 
So next time you are dealing with some confused soul trying to call you a “sovereign citizen”, call them on it.  
“I am afraid that you are confused. I am a foreign sovereign with respect to you, and even if I wanted to be a “sovereign citizen” neither I nor anyone else could answer to that, because “sovereign citizen” is an oxymoron. No such thing exists by definition.” 
Lately, minions of the foreign Federal Subcontractors and their franchise brethren running the foreign State of State organizations, have started calling our assemblies “self-declared government organizations” in a dismissive and insulting way. 
Obviously, they don’t know that we, Americans, stand under The Unanimous Declaration of Independence, and that results in a “self-declared government” if ever there was one.  Smile and remind them of that fact. 
Stupid is as stupid does. 
You might also remind them that they work for us and take their paychecks from our pockets.  
This is just a matter of knowing your own language and theirs. 
Recently, I encountered a patriot organization that was describing itself as “anti-government”.  
Why would anyone do that?  
Why not paint “insurrectionist” across your forehead, a target on your back, and drop your pants? 
No true patriot is “anti-government”.  
We are simply in favor of our government, not against anyone else’s. What other people accept, no matter how parasitic, is their business. 
So, even when you are angry because some confused and ignorant British Territorial or Municipal citizen misaddresses you, understand that you don’t stand under their government, so it’s no skin off your nose and you don’t need to be “against” their government.  

You merely need to remind them of who they are and who you are, and not beat around the bush about it.  

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No Article III Courts, Either

 By Anna Von Reitz

For the last several years I have been having a running battle with Ron Vrooman, a guy from Oregon, who has spent his life vainly searching for an Article III Court. 
Begin with the fact that all Courts formed under the Constitutions are courts practicing international or global law by definition, or, they may be administrative courts, that is, administrative tribunals concerned with the internal affairs and personnel issues of their own corporations.  
None of these courts that you see camped out in our court houses practice our American Common Law. They threw up their hands and admitted this in 1938. 
They are all specialty courts, not Courts of General Jurisdiction. 
Ron’s Quest, looking for an American Common Law Court of Justice “under the Constitution” (and thinking that the Article III Courts were the answer) was always like looking for a unicorn under the hood of a Chevy Pick-Up.  
Our courts have stood largely vacant for many years, including our American Federal Courts (Article III). 
There’s simply nobody staffing them, and hardly anyone practicing American Common Law, even though our Courts hold General Jurisdiction.  
We have to staff our courts ourselves, or pay someone to do this work for us. So, it’s me, you, and the chickens. 
We came to these conclusions after an exhaustive study of the Constitutions and the Treaties giving rise to them, but those studies ended many years ago.  Nobody had the time to hand-hold Ron and go back through it all. 
Thankfully, there’s always a new generation hopping down the rabbit hole and discovering exactly what we found, and one of our readers has researched that material again.  
So here is the proof, Ron, demonstrating the nature of the courts that remain in business here.  See the attachments.  
The proper way to restore our Common Law Courts of Justice is precisely what we have been leading people to do — declare your proper political status, join your State Assembly, and organize your own State Court. 
State Courts don’t fall under the Federal Constitutions by definition. 
State Courts are superior to Federal Courts, including Article III Courts, within the borders of their States — though they must for the time being respect the fact that some powers of the State have been delegated away to Federal Subcontractors.  
The Federation of States is competent to restore the American Federal Courts established under Article III of the original Federal Constitution, but these are not the courts that the people of this country desperately need. 
What the people need are their own properly provenanced and constructed State Courts. Unfortunately, it doesn’t occur to people that their own courts are vacated, and that they have to supply the manpower and everything else needed to run their own separate court system.  
Americans have to supply themselves with the remedy they need. Nobody else can do it for them. 
We have researched this situation ad nauseum and the answer is simple enough.  The State Assembly has the power and responsibility to provide the State Courts for the living people of this country, but The State Assembly itself must be properly provenanced and its members must be declared first. 
The American States Assembly is leading the way and empowering the American people to bring their State Governments into Session and to  man their State Courts—- State Courts that are  American Common Law Courts of Justice, which hold General Jurisdiction in each State of the Union.  All fifty States are now in General Assembly and working on standing up their courts.  

If you want justice for yourself and your family, your County, State, and the country as a whole, stand up.  Correct your political status records and get involved today

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The Biology of Carbon Dioxide

  • Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a driver of energy production, as it improves the delivery of oxygen into your cells. CO2 also helps protect against the harmful effects of lipid peroxidation

  • CO2 and lactate have opposing effects. Lactate is the byproduct of metabolizing glucose without oxygen in the cytoplasm. So, where lactate causes problems, CO2 has beneficial effects

  • Elevated lactate production is a common theme in diabetes, Alzheimer’s, heart failure, shock and general aging. It promotes inflammation and degrades mitochondrial function. Conversely, low CO2 concentrations have been linked to epileptic seizures, muscle spasms, inflammation, hypothyroidism, stroke and clotting disorders

  • All these issues, whether caused by elevated lactate or low CO2, can be successfully treated with CO2 therapies of various kinds, such as CO2 baths (where CO2 is pumped into the tub, much like bathing in carbonated mineral water) or adding CO2 into standard hyperbaric treatment

  • Simpler ways to raise your tissue content of CO2 include breathing into a paper bag, having an adequate supply of calcium, and supplementing with salt, baking soda or carbonated beverages

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In this 2010 interview, the late Ray Peat, a biologist and physiologist who specialized in the bioenergetic theory of health,1 reviewed some of the key benefits of CO2 and how it works within the human body. This article is a summary of the key points made in that interview.

I apologize for the video quality. The video was recorded 13 years ago, and appears to have been shot on a cell phone. In 2010 the cameras were not very good. However, the audio is fine, and more importantly, this information is really hard to come by since Peat is no longer with us. Only 2,000 people had viewed it when I first saw it.

I watched it four times as it is so good. I’m convinced optimizing your carbon dioxide (CO2) level is one of the most important strategies you can do to slow down degeneration due to aging.

On that point, I will be interviewing one of the leading breathing experts in the world, Peter Litchfield, Ph.D., who will educate us on why most breathing techniques don’t work, as they don’t address the underlying triggered breathing habits that lower CO2.

CO2 is typically thought of as nothing more than a harmful waste product of respiration, and a “pollutant” that endangers the earth by raising global temperatures.

The reality is that CO2 is a driver of mitochondrial energy production, and it improves the delivery of oxygen into your cells. It’s also essential for most life on Earth, plants in particular. In fact, CO2 appears to be a more fundamental component of living matter than oxygen.2 All of this was well-known in decades past, but somehow knowledge about the beneficial effects of CO2 has been suppressed over time.

Importantly, CO2 allows for more efficient energy production in your mitochondria, which is why people who live or spend time at higher altitudes tend to be healthier and have fewer chronic health problems such as asthma. The reason for this is because the pressure of CO2 relative to oxygen is greater at higher altitudes.

According to Forbes Health, biohacking is “a term used to describe various tips and tricks for enhancing the body’s ability to function at peak performance — and maybe even extend one’s lifespan.”

A biohack for mimicking being at a higher altitude in order to boost CO2 is to breathe into a paper lunch bag for a minute or two. The bag should not be too small or too large (an ideal size is 6 inches by 15 inches, or 15 centimeters by 38 centimeters). Breathe into the bag with your mouth and nose covered until you feel better.

With each exhale, you expel carbon dioxide. By rebreathing the carbon dioxide inside the paper bag, you effectively raise your carbon dioxide level. According to Peat, breathing into a paper bag a few times a day has been shown to bring blood pressure down by as much as 30 points, and stabilize it there after a few days of repetition.

As explained by Peat, CO2 and lactate have opposing effects.3 4 5 So, where lactate causes problems, CO2 has beneficial effects.

For example, elevated lactate production is a common theme in diabetes, Alzheimer’s, heart failure, shock and general aging. It promotes inflammation and degrades mitochondrial function. Conversely, low CO2 concentrations have been linked to epileptic seizures, muscle spasms, inflammation, hypothyroidism, stroke, and clotting disorders.

According to Peat, all these issues, whether caused by elevated lactate or low CO2, can be successfully treated with CO2 therapies of various kinds, such as CO2 baths (where CO2 is pumped into the tub, much like bathing in carbonated mineral water) or adding CO2 into standard hyperbaric treatment.

Simpler ways to raise your tissue content of CO2 include breathing into a small paper lunch bag a few times a day as detailed above, having an adequate supply of calcium, and supplementing with salt, baking soda or carbonated beverages.6

Peat tells the story of how he told an individual suffering from transient ischemic attacks who’d gone to the emergency room with stroke symptoms and paralysis on several occasions to drink a soda or carbonated water when the attacks occurred, as the bubbles in carbonated drinks are CO2 gas. “That worked for him,” he said.

Lactate is the byproduct of glycolysis, or nonaerobic respiration. It occurs when your mitochondria are compromised and are unable to metabolize glucose. Instead of pyruvate going to the mitochondria to be burned, it is oxidized to lactate in the cell’s cytoplasm. When this occurs in the presence of oxygen it is called the Warburg Effect, which is major pathway that cancer cells use.

energy production

As illustrated in the graph below, glucose can be metabolized in two different ways. When fat intake is too high, glucose is burned though glycolysis, which uses no oxygen and produces lactate. This is a highly inefficient way to produce energy, as it generates only 2 ATP per glucose molecule. And, in the context of this article, no CO2.

When fat intake is in the sweet spot of 15% to 40%, and glucose intake is high enough, it can be burned for fuel in the mitochondria. This generates up to 38 ATP per glucose molecule. In this process, NADH and CO2 are also produced.7

randle cycle

If fat intake is over 40% and the carb intake is below 200 grams per day, the glucose is burned in glycolysis in the cell’s cytoplasm, which produces lactate that suppresses glucose oxidation and shifts metabolism to the burning of fats instead.

Lactate also promotes inflammation and fibrosis. CO2, meanwhile, limits the formation of lactate, increases oxidation of glucose, helps trigger mitochondrial formation (i.e., boosts the number of mitochondria in your cells) and boosts cellular ATP concentrations.8

As explained by Peat, glycolysis products (pyruvate and lactate) compete with CO2 for binding sites inside the mitochondrion. Glycolysis decreases energy production by reducing CO2.

In summary, two key points from all this are:

  1. The most efficient way to generate cellular energy is to burn glucose in the electron transport chain of your mitochondria (aerobic respiration). In addition to generating up to 38 ATP molecules per glucose molecule (opposed to the two generated through glycolysis), it also generates an estimated 50% more CO2 than fat oxidation.9

    In order for glucose to be metabolized in your mitochondria, your dietary fat intake needs to be sufficiently low so as not to inhibit the oxidation of glucose. While there’s no hard evidence on how much fat is too much, I suspect you need to restrict fat to 30% or 40%, depending on your individual needs, to optimize your glucose metabolism.

  2. There are two possible energy states:

    1. A glycolytic stress state in which energy production is reduced by the inhibition of CO2.

    2. An energy-efficient state in which CO2 is produced and lactate is suppressed.

CO2 also helps protect against the harmful effects of lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation10 refers to a process in which free radicals and other harmful oxidants attack lipids (fats) that have carbon-carbon double bonds. Polyunsaturated fats (PUFAs) such as linoleic acid (LA) are particularly prone to this.

The key that many fail to recognize is that lipid peroxidation increases when CO2 levels are low, as CO2 protects the fats from damage. As explained by Peat, when CO2 is low, that’s when PUFAs increase their production of lipid peroxides11 (oxidation products of phospholipids).

Lipid peroxides degrade into reactive aldehydes such as malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-noneal (4-HNE), which damage DNA and proteins, causing them to malfunction. Lipid peroxidation is known to contribute to conditions such as cancer, atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative conditions, just to name a few.12

Peat cites one experiment in which they showed that when you raise the CO2 in human tissues to three times normal, the amount of lipid peroxides went to zero. So, CO2 has a potent anti-inflammatory effect and effectively protects against lipid peroxidation.

This is an important piece of information, as most people nowadays consume enormously excessive amounts of seed oils that are loaded with PUFAs, and thus have very elevated levels of stored LA in their cells.

As explained in “Linoleic Acid — The Most Destructive Ingredient in Your Diet,” LA is a primary contributor to chronic disease, as it causes mitochondrial dysfunction and promotes inflammation.

Augmenting CO2 in your tissues may be an effective way to limit LA-induced damage while you work to eliminate the excess LA from your tissues and replace it with healthy fats (which can take six or seven years).

Peat also goes into an extended discussion involving many separate pieces to explain how lactate and CO2 influence the stress response and other parts of human biology that impact disease, including cancer.

For starters, the cytochrome oxidase enzyme — also known as Complex IV in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, which is what uses oxygen — governs your rate of oxygen consumption.

So, the more cytochrome oxidase you have, and the more active it is, the greater your oxygen consumption. Cytochrome oxidase is also responsible for increasing the total number of mitochondria within the cell as needed to accommodate for increased oxygen consumption.

When you saturate a cell with a very large amount of CO2, you rapidly increase the amount of cytochrome oxidase in the cell, and you boost its activity almost instantly. This shifts the oxidative balance of the cell towards the oxidized state, as electrons are being pulled out of the system. This lowers reductive stress in the cell, which is what you want to do.

In healthy cells, there’s a balance between NAD+ and NADH that is critical for energy production. Conditions like cancer or diabetes disrupt this balance, leading to excess lactate and reduced NAD+. Carbon dioxide is crucial because it prevents excessive lactate production, maintaining a healthy NAD+ to NADH ratio.

CO2 also influences the water balance in cells, supporting an oxidized cellular condition with lowered reductive stress that results in proper oxygen utilization. Hyperventilation, or over-breathing, which reduces CO2, typically leads to overproduction of lactate, contributing to stress and disrupting cellular balance.

Peat also discusses the role of CO2 in emergency care that has the potential to save your life or the life of someone you love. Stroke patients are typically ventilated with pure oxygen to prevent hypoxia-induced brain damage,13 but this isn’t the best way to help these patients.

A ventilation strategy called permissive hypercapnia appears to be far better. Permissive hypercapnia refers to a ventilation strategy employing partial pressures of CO2 that are higher than physiological norms. I have been encouraging those in the hyperbaric oxygen community to explore and adopt this strategy in their hyperbaric chambers. As explained by Peat:

“Quite a few people are now, just in the last few years, starting to talk about permissive hypercapnia … instead of ventilating someone to death [by] giving them pure oxygen. When people aren’t getting enough oxygen to the brain, they’ll give them pure oxygen and then hyperventilate them.

The idea is to shrink their brain by hyperventilating them, because it shuts down the blood circulation of the brain. But if they’re dying of a lack of oxygen to the brain, [that’s] not what you want to do …

I had mentioned [using carbonated beverages during ischemic stroke] in a nutrition class. I had said soda water, meaning carbonated water, but the next week, one of the students said that she had interpreted it as baking soda in water.

Basically, it’s the same idea, but she said she gave a spoonful of baking soda to her mother who had been half-paralyzed for six months, and 15 minutes after drinking just a glass of baking soda water the paralysis lifted and stayed away.”

The reason baking soda worked in this case is probably because CO2 is carried through your bloodstream by sodium bicarbonate (baking soda).14 Peat goes on to discuss how, in the past, firemen used to carry CO2 for the treatment of shock and respiratory arrest.

“All animals and even plants suffer from a lack of carbon dioxide. If you lower it, even plants won’t do well.” ~ Ray Peat

In the 1920s, Yandell Henderson, director of the Yale Laboratory of Applied Physiology, devised a system using oxygen with 5%, 7% or 10% CO2 added in. Fire departments all over the United States, and many hospitals, were using 5% CO2 to resuscitate babies that had stopped breathing and treat shock cases. It was also used post-operatively to aid in the recovery process.

In closing, Peat also overturned key arguments of the green agenda by pointing out that during the Carboniferous period of Earth’s history, when plant and animal life was extraordinarily abundant, carbon dioxide levels were some 20 times higher than they are now, and temperatures were relatively stable.

“The expansion of vegetation will reflect infrared rays back into space,” he said, “so it’s sort of like the Earth has a thermostat that will regulate for huge changes in in CO2,” he said.

Even more importantly, nothing thrives in low CO2 environments — not plants, not animals or insects and, as evidenced by everything discussed above, not humans. If anything, the world may actually need a bit more CO2, seeing how CO2-deficiency states are rampant, forests are dying and plants aren’t growing very well. As noted by Peat:

“All animals and even plants suffer from a lack of carbon dioxide. If you lower it, even plants won’t do well … In the 1940s, people experimented with poisoning to death rats or mice with 50% carbon dioxide, keeping them dead for an hour and then reviving them, and they had no brain damage. If they gave them extra CO2, they weren’t damaged by the absence of oxygen. So, for primitive organisms, it’s more essential than oxygen.”

The increasingly erratic weather systems we’re now experiencing likely have little to do with the CO2 content of our atmosphere, and far more to do with a combination of decades-long weather manipulation15 and natural solar cycles.16 17

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