Surpassing Overdose: Study Links Opioids to Heart-Related Deaths

The opioid epidemic has been a topic of conversation for a years now. With doctors and pharmacies being instructed to be more careful with their prescribing of the medication, and some states even asking them to look up a patient’s drug history before dispensing the drugs, it comes as no surprise that abuse and overdose are two huge issues. However, research suggests that many patients, especially those on long-term opioids, are dying not only because of overdoses, but simply because they are using them for far too long.

The study, which reviewed 45,000 patients from Tennessee from 1999 to 2012, found that those who had been prescribed opioids had a 64% increased risk of dying within 6 months of starting a regimen of the pills, compared to patients who were on other types of medications.

Although overdose and sharing medication is certainly a risk, the study claims that many doctors prescribe medication without thinking about the risk they may have for cardiovascular patients.

Patients with heart problems are the most vulnerable, as long-term opioid use can lead to slowing down of the heart, particularly when mixed with alcohol. This can lead to an accidental death. Opioids are also particularly dangerous for patients with sleep apnea, as the pills can disrupt the patients’ breathing patterns even further. This can lead to irregular heartbeat, heart attacks, and in some cases, even death.

All of the patients in this study were on Medicaid and were receiving long-term opioids for problems such as backaches, and chronic asthma and bronchitis. None had a history of abusing drugs.

Because they were on Medicaid, it is possible that they were unable to access medication that would actually treat the problem they had, thus doctors were over-prescribing opioids for temporary relief of the symptoms without curative benefits.

Dr. Magdalena Anitescu, a pain management expert at the University of Chicago, stated that there needs to be a huge change in how treatment is regulated. She states that alternative treatments can be just as effective, however, patients need to be granted access and doctors need to be educated on what else can be done besides simply prescribe opioids.

“We have a major cultural shift ahead of us,” said Dr. Chad Brummett, director of pain research at the University of Michigan Health System.

The results were published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA).


Claims Journal

CBS News

Listeria Concerns Prompt Avocado Recall in 6 States

On March 23, the Henry Avocado Corporation announced it was recalling California-grown avocadoes sold in bulk to retail stores in 6 states due to potential Listeria contamination.

The company said in a statement:

“Henry Avocado is issuing this voluntary recall out of an abundance of caution due to positive test results on environmental samples taken during a routine government inspection at its California packing facility.”

So far, no illnesses have been reported.

The recalled products include California-grown conventional and organic avocados that were packed at the company’s California facility. They were distributed to retailers in Arizona, California, Florida, New Hampshire, North Carolina, and Wisconsin.

Listeria can cause an illness called listeriosis that is marked by symptoms such as fever, muscle aches, headache, stiff neck, confusion, and loss of balance. Listeriosis is especially dangerous for pregnant women because it can cause miscarriage, stillbirth, premature delivery, or life-threatening infection in newborns. Elderly adults and people with compromised immune systems are also especially susceptible to listeriosis.

Henry Avocado said it is contacting retailers to ensure its products are no longer on store shelves. Buyers are urged to check the stickers on their avocados. The affected products have “Bravocado” labels on them. Henry Avocado organic products do not carry the “Bravocado” sticker; rather, those products are labeled “organic” and include “California” on the sticker.

Anyone who has one of the recalled avocados in their position should either throw it away or return it to the point of purchase for a full refund.


[1] CNN (featured image source)

Salt and Your Health: Study Links High Intake to Early Death

Does high salt intake lead to cardiovascular problems? According to a study released in June, it does. A ‘more accurate’ test measurement showed a direct link between consuming high amounts of salt and an elevated risk of dying from cardiovascular disease.

The study, conducted by scientists at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, used multiple measurements to determine just how salt might affect cardiovascular health. The team writes in the International Journal of Epidemiology that salt intake has been inaccurately determined in the past.

Dr. Nancy Cook, a biostatistician in the Department of Medicine at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, said in a news release:

“Sodium is notoriously hard to measure. Sodium is hidden – you often don’t know how much of it you’re eating, which makes it hard to estimate how much a person has consumed from a dietary questionnaire.”

While there are numerous ways to measure sodium excretions, those methods aren’t always accurate, Cook said.

In order to accurately measure sodium levels in urine, the urine must be tested over 24 hours. This is because sodium levels in urine can fluctuate throughout the day. The researchers also say that samples should be taken on multiple days because sodium consumption can vary from day to day.

Cook and her colleagues used spot samples for the study, but they also utilized other methods, including the “gold standard” of analyzing an average of multiple, non-consecutive urine samples.

Additionally, the scientists analyzed records from participants in the Trials of Hypertension Prevention, which included 2,974 people with pre-hypertension aged 30-54 years. A total of 272 people died during the 24-year follow-up period.

The researchers’ updated method showed a direct linear relationship between increased sodium intake and increased risk of death. Using the gold standard testing method, the team found that the average sodium intake was 3,769 mg/d, and the average overestimated sodium intake by 1,297 mg/d.

The common Kawasaki formula used to judge salt intake showed a J-shaped curve, which suggests that both low and high levels of salt intake are linked to an increased risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease.

The authors wrote:

“Our findings indicate that inaccurate measurement of sodium intake could be an important contributor to the paradoxical J-shaped findings reported in some cohort studies. Epidemiological studies should not associate health outcomes with unreliable measurements of sodium intake.”

According to Harvard University’s T.H. Chan School of Public Health, too much sodium wreaks havoc on the kidneys and heart and forces the body to hold onto water to dilute the excess sodium. [2]

A combination of the amount of fluid surrounding cells and the volume of blood in the bloodstream forces the heart to work harder and puts increased pressure on blood vessels. Over time, this can lead to stiffening of blood vessels, resulting in hypertension, heart attack, and stroke.

Now, there is evidence to suggest that the type of salt a person consumes is more important than the amount they consume. Industrially-refined salt lacks the minerals the body needs to properly function, and that’s the kind of salt that gets dumped into processed foods.

Unrefined sea salt provides many health benefits that we’ve covered in the past. But you must make sure it is unrefined.

Furthermore, there are scientists who believe that the over-consumption of sodium is not the true cause of high blood pressure.


[1] UPI

[2] Newsmax

CDC: More Than 1 in 3 Americans Eat Fast-Food Every Day

It’s likely that most Americans are well-versed when it comes to how unhealthy fast-food is, yet a survey published October 3 by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) shows that more than 1 in 3 Americans eat fast food on any given day. [1]

The survey, compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics, shows that between 2013 and 2016, more than 36% – more than 1 in 3 – hit up a fast-food joint every day.

The findings show that the older the individual, the less fast-food they ate. Forty-five percent of adults ages 20 to 39 ate fast-food, compared to just 24% of adults over 60.

Men were more likely to eat fast-food than women, and non-Hispanic black adults consumed the most fast-food (42%), compared to whites (38%), Hispanics (35.5%), and Asian-Americans (31%). [2]

Income was found to play a significant role in how much fast-food a person ate. While fast-food is notoriously cheap, people with higher incomes were more likely to eat fast-food than those at lower incomes, the survey shows.

  • About 32% of lower-income Americans ate fast-food daily
  • More than 36% of middle-income Americans chowed down on fast-food on a given day
  • 42% of higher-income folks chowed down on fast-food on a given day

Read: Why You Should Avoid Fast-Food at All Costs

Several fast food chains have been trying to offer healthier menu items. For example, McDonald’s earlier this year pledged to make Kids’ Meals healthier by reducing portions, as well as salt and fat. In 2016, the fast food chain announced several changes to its menu offerings aimed at appealing to health-conscious customers, including adding kale and spinach to the iceberg lettuce in its salads (though the salads ended up being higher in calories than a Big Mac).

Still, it’s likely that fast-food restaurants will never be able to shake their reputation for being unhealthy. Despite the changes many chains have made, there is very little nutrition to be found in a fast-food meal.

Liz Weinandy, a registered dietitian at Ohio State University’s Wexner Medical Center, said:

“Most fast-food is not good for our bodies. The more of it we eat, the more likely we are to be overweight or obese and have increased risk for several diseases like Type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and metabolic syndrome when talking to patients.”

It seems that despite the many warnings about the health woes fast-food can cause, Americans aren’t taking them very seriously.

Weinandy said:

“When we see news clips of a shark swimming near a beach, it scares us into not going near the beach.”

Read: Guess How Many Calories Are in a Typical Fast-Food Meal

But, she said, “what we should be scared of is double cheeseburgers, French fries, and large amounts of sugary beverages.”

Weinandy added:

“There is no reason to completely avoid fast-food, but it shouldn’t be consumed regularly. You may want to ask yourself how often you’re currently eating it and then cut that number in half if it’s more than once a week.”


[1] USA Today

[2] HealthDay

Study: This is How a High-Cholesterol Diet Increases Colon Cancer Risk

An increasing number of scientists now say that cholesterol doesn’t cause heart attacks, but eating a high-cholesterol diet may come with other risks, including a higher risk of colon cancer. Now, scientists understand exactly how cholesterol increases that risk. [1]

Researchers from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) have discovered a previously-unknown molecular mechanism that promoted the growth of tumors in a study of mice. The authors wrote that as cholesterol levels increased in the mice, they observed that the mice’s intestinal stem cells (ISCs) began to proliferate and cancerous tumors inside the animals began growing at a faster rate.

Senior study author Peter Tontonoz, a professor of pathology and laboratory medicine, said:

“We were excited to find that cholesterol influences the growth of stem cells in the intestines, which in turn accelerates the rate of tumor formation by more than 100-fold.

While the connection between dietary cholesterol and colon cancer is well established, no one has previously explained the mechanism behind it.”

Read: Cholesterol Guidelines Updated for the First Time Since 2013

Cholesterol tends to be associated with poor health, but the body needs cholesterol to function properly. The body uses this fatty, waxy substance to make vitamin D, hormones, and compounds that aid digestion and help to form cell walls.

Cholesterol travels through the bloodstream in little “packets” of lipoproteins. There are 2 types of these lipoproteins: low-density lipoprotein (LDL) “bad” cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) “good” cholesterol. Cholesterol only becomes a threat when these 2 different types become imbalanced.

Scientists have known about a link between cholesterol and cancer in the past, as cancer cells tend to have higher levels of cholesterol than healthy cells. But does this mean that cholesterol itself plays a role in the development of cancer? That was the question researchers have been trying to answer.

Relate Read: Tomatoes Work as Well as Statins to Lower Cholesterol

The American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) maintains that research “has not shown a link between dietary cholesterol and cancer risk.”

The AICR points out:

“There is room in a cancer-protective diet for high cholesterol foods, including eggs, shrimp, and other seafood, low-fat dairy products, and moderate amounts of lean meat.”

Pinpointing the Link

Tontonoz and his colleagues think they found the missing link between cholesterol and cancer, and that link is an enzyme called Lpcat3.

Lpcat3 “unexpectedly” influences how quickly intestinal stem cells divide and multiply by controlling the production of cholesterol inside cells, the study found. Stem cells have been shown to be “cells of origin for intestinal tumors,” the team noted.

For the study, the researchers increased the level of cholesterol intake for one group of mice, and altered a gene in a second group of mice to make the animals’ cells produce more cholesterol.

The altered gene controls phospholipids, the main type of fat that goes into making cell walls.

The mice’s intestinal tissue lining expanded rapidly and the growth rate of their colon tumors sped up as a result of the increased cholesterol. The rodents’ intestines also got longer. [2]

The authors wrote:

“We showed here that high cholesterol diets feed increased cellular cholesterol in [gut] crypts and that cellular cholesterol content regulates the proliferation of ISCs.”

To summarize: Yes, there is a link between dietary cholesterol and colon cancer. Researchers knew that but didn’t know, until now, the mechanism behind the link. [1]

Tontonoz said:

“While the connection between dietary cholesterol and colon cancer is well-established, no one has previously explained the mechanism behind it.”

But his team’s finding raises another important question that needs to be investigated: Does cholesterol also cause other forms of cancer?

Read: 5 Easy Ways to Elevate Your “Good” Cholesterol Levels (HDL) Naturally

The authors wrote: [2]

“Future studies will explore whether manipulating these metabolic axes could be used as a strategy for therapeutic intervention in gastrointestinal diseases.”

The study is published in the journal Cell Stem Cell.


[1] Medical News Today

[2] Independent

Study: Losing Money While Young can Lead to Heart Disease Later

You’re working hard, paying your bills, and enjoying a social life on the side when, all of a sudden, you lose your job. Life isn’t so easy anymore. You worry about how you’re going to pay your rent and put gas in your car. Income fluctuations are stressful, and can lead to numerous health issues. One study found that when you lose money in young adulthood in particular, the risk for heart disease increases.

A recent study published in the journal Circulation shows that unexpected dips in income for young adults nearly double the risk of death and cause a more-than-50% increase in the likelihood of developing cardiovascular diseases, including heart attack, stroke, and heart failure during the following 10 years when compared to people with a steadier income.

Read: 5 Ways Stress Affects Your Mind and Body

Study leader Tali Elfassy, an assistant professor at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine in Florida, said:

“Income volatility presents a growing public health threat, especially when federal programs, which are meant to help absorb unpredictable income changes, are undergoing continuous changes, and mostly cuts.”

Beginning in 1990, Elfassy and colleagues focused on people who had lost 25% or more of their income. The team looked at cardiovascular events among participants that resulted in death or illness between 2005 and 2015.

The study looked at people in 1990, between the ages of 23 and 35, living in Birmingham, Alabama; Minneapolis, Minnesota; Chicago, Illinois, and Oakland, California.

Most of the income fluctuations reported in the study were caused by periods of unemployment or pay cuts after changing jobs. Black people and women were more likely to experience income fluctuations, the study found. [2]

Read: 4 Things You May Not Know Are Harming Your Heart

The researchers were surprised by how much of an effect income instability appeared to have on heart health.

Elfassy said:

“We assumed that income drops or frequent changes in income were probably not good for health, considering that these are thought of as stressful events. But we were surprised by the magnitude of the effect we saw since we were looking at a relatively young population. These were strong effect sizes.”

The study didn’t look at what drives the link between drops in income and an increased risk for heart disease. However, stressful events are known to contribute to obesity and high blood pressure, both of which are risk factors for heart disease.

Moreover, having a lower socioeconomic status has been linked to poorer health, as people with lower incomes tend to smoke more, exercise less, and see their doctor less frequently, all of which can contribute to heart problems.

Read: Just 9 Walnuts a Day Can “Bust Stress Levels”

Elfassy said: [1]

“While this study is observational in nature and certainly not an evaluation of such programs, our results do highlight that large negative changes in income may be detrimental to heart health and may contribute to premature death.”

In the U.S., approximately 1 in 4 deaths are attributed to heart disease, which can be worsened by smoking and hypertension.


[1] UPI

[2] Time

Grocery Store Clerk Donates Kidney to Favorite Customer

As most people who work in retail can tell you, there are good customers who make your day go by faster and bad customers who make you want to quit your job. And, usually, there are a few regulars who truly make your job worthwhile. But how far would you go to help a favorite customer? One grocery store cashier in Mississippi didn’t hesitate when she had the opportunity to upend a favorite customer’s world in the best way possible – by donating a kidney.

Mobile, Alabama, resident Eddie Drummond is a regular at Wayne Lee’s Grocery and Market in Pascagoula, Mississippi. He stops there every morning on his way to work for a hot breakfast.

He said:

“I get here about 5 in the morning. That’s the only place that’s open.”

Eddie is always a cheerful soul with a smile for everyone at Wayne Lee’s. So, one of the cashiers was surprised when Eddie showed up at the store one morning with a pained expression on his face. When asked what was wrong, Eddie explained that his wife, Donnie, was on dialysis and wasn’t in good shape. She would need a kidney transplant to save her life.

Cashier Leilani Aguirre Crocker responded with much more than a comforting word. She responded by offering to give Eddie’s wife one of her own kidneys.

She explained:

“I told him I’ll give her mine. And he was shocked.”

Eddie was so shocked, he wasn’t completely sure Aguirre was being serious.

“I really thought she was playing until she told me to set it up with my insurance company.” [2]

You might expect a family member or a close friend to offer a kidney, but it’s not every day that a relative stranger offers to go under the knife to save a customer. [1]

Eddie and Donnie Drummond have been married for 35 years. In 2015, Donnie was diagnosed with kidney failure and began undergoing dialysis. But her doctors made it clear: She was living on borrowed time unless she found a suitable kidney donor.

(Courtesy of Eddie Drummond) Eddie and Donnie Drummond, pictured in this undated photo, have been married for 32 years. Donnie Drummond was told she had kidney failure in 2015. Source: ABC News

It became evident that time was running out when Donnie went to the hospital after experiencing breathing problems for an entire day.

She said:

“Doctor said I got there just in time because I had a lot of fluid on my heart. I could have died in my sleep.”

Read: Daughter of Singer Amy Grant Gives her Best Friend a Kidney

An Unexpected, Life-Saving Gift

Eddie and Crocker decided to surprise Donnie with the news that she was going to receive the gift of life.

When Crocker, who got married shortly after making the amazing offer, showed up on Donnie’s doorstep, Donnie wasn’t sure what her intentions were. After all, Crocker was there asking to speak to her husband.

But when Crocker explained to Donnie that she wanted to give her a kidney, Donnie burst into tears and started screaming. She would have even more years with the man who was so heartbroken over the prospect of losing his beloved wife.

Donnie, 53, said: [2]

“I said, ‘God is so good, I’ve been praying for a miracle!’”

But it gets even better. Donnie and Crocker couldn’t have been a more perfect match; they both shared the same blood type, O-positive. [1]

Crocker’s reason for helping Donnie was simple, yet profound. She did it simply because she would have wanted someone to do the same for her, had she been the person in need.

Crocker asked:

“What if it happens to me and I need a stranger to come help me?”

Now, the bond between Crocker, her new husband, Adam, and the Drummonds is more like family than casual friends. They go to dinner together, attend church together, and they even spent the recent holidays together. [1] [2]

(Courtesy of Eddie Drummond) Adam Crocker and Leilani Aguirre Crocker got married shortly before she volunteered to donate her kidney to Donnie Drummond. Source: ABC News

Eddie told Crocker: [1]

“You will always be a part of us because you put an extension on my wife’s life, and I can’t thank you enough.”

Donnie will always be grateful for the gift of life that came at the perfect time.

“I asked for a miracle blessing, and (God) sent it to me because He’s not done with me on this earth.”

Crocker, an Army veteran and mother of 4, said: [2]

“It’s the right thing to do. Something inside of me is telling me to do this. God works in mysterious ways.”

The transplant is scheduled to take place later this spring at Ochsner Medical Center in New Orleans. [1]


[1] WDAM 7

[2] ABC News

Organic Sunflower, Tahini Butter Recalled After Customer “Finds” Listeria

Oskri Organics Corp. has recalled its sunflower and tahini butter products due to concerns that they may be contaminated with Listeria. [1]

In a statement, Oskri, based in Wisconsin, said a customer informed them in mid-December that they “randomly” sent its product in for testing and that the results came back positive for Listeria monocytogenes bacteria. Kind of weird.

Listeria monocytogenes can cause a serious infection called Listeriosis. Symptoms vary depending on the person and the part of the body affected, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). [2]

People tend to experience headache, stiff neck, confusion, loss of balance, convulsions, as well as fever and muscle aches.

Pregnant women typically only experience flu-like symptoms such as fever, fatigue, and muscle aches. However, infections during pregnancy can be extremely dire, resulting in miscarriage, stillbirth, premature delivery, or life-threatening infection of the newborn.

The recalled products include: [1]

  • Oskri Organic Sunflower Butter, Lot #99
  • Oskri Tahini Butter, Lot #193
  • Thrive Sunflower Butter, Lot #233

The products are sold in 16-ounce plastic jars.

In a statement, the company said:

“An investigation is still ongoing to find the source of the Listeria monocytogenes. We have ceased the production and distribution of the product as FDA and Oskri continue their investigation as to what caused the problem.”

No illnesses were reported as of January 2, 2019.

However, it can take up to 70 days after exposure to Listeria monocytogenes for symptoms of infection to develop. Oskri Organics is urging anyone with the affected products in their home to dispose of them immediately. [3]

There is concern that customers may have unopened containers of the recalled products at home because of their long shelf life. Some of the products have expiration dates more than a year away. The recalled sunflower and tahini butter were distributed to stores in 12 states, and some were sold directly to buyers via the Internet.

Anyone with questions may contact Oskri Organics by phone at 920-648-8300, or by e-mail at


[1] CBS News

[2] U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

[3] Food Safety News

Study Suggests 5 Hot Baths a Week Lowers Heart Attack, Stroke Risk

When you think of ways to improve the health of your heart, eating a well-balanced diet and exercising probably comes to mind (though you may not do them!). Those things are definitely important – by far most important, in fact – but there are other heart-healthy things you can do, too. It may be time to start taking some relaxing, hot baths, as one study found that taking 5 hot baths a week was associated with a lower risk of heart disease.

Researchers from Ehime University in Japan wrote in the journal Nature that taking at least 5 hot baths a week can lower a person’s blood pressure as well as their risk of heart attack and stroke. That’s a lot of relaxation!

In the study, Prof. Katsuhiko Kohara and a team of colleagues asked 873 study participants aged 60 to 76 years old to complete a questionnaire regarding their hot water bathing practices. [2]

“Hot” water was defined as water having a temperature of over 41°C (105.8°F) for an average of 12.4 minutes at a time.

Read: What Is a Detox Bath and How Do You Take One?

Researchers determined cardiac health by measuring brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, which is a measure of atherosclerosis, and plasma levels of B-type natriuretic peptide, which is a standard measure of cardiac loading.

The team was able to include in the study longitudinal data they had on 164 of the participants, all of whom had undergone a minimal of 2 medical examinations, averaging a follow-up period of almost 5 years.

Participants who said they took at least 5 hot baths a week every week showed significantly lower markers of atherosclerosis and cardiac loading, the study found.

The authors said in the report:

“Water immersion is associated with increased volume of strokes, reduction of heart rate, an increase in cardiac output, and reduction of total peripheral vascular resistance. [However,] it has also repeatedly demonstrated that hot water immersion has favorable effects on cardiovascular function in patients with heart failure. [1]

Heat exposure shares the mechanism observed in sauna bathing, increasing core temperature, heart rate and contractility, redistribution of blood flow, and changes in conduit vessel endothelial shear stress. Elevation of core body temperature and increase in blood flow show similar physiological effects to those seen in exercise, which may account for the positive vascular effects associated with hot water immersion.”

Taking a hot bath for cardio-therapeutic reasons is known as “passive heating.” According to WebMD, passive heating could help lower blood sugar levels, decrease inflammation, lower blood pressure, and – as Ehime University scientists found – decrease the risk of heart attack and stroke. Though the research is only in its early stages.

That doesn’t mean that you should abandon a healthy diet and quit exercising to open up time for hot baths, though. Bathing in hot water 5 times a week should be viewed as another weapon in the arsenal against heart disease – something that should be included in an already-healthy lifestyle.

Baths Should be Part of an Otherwise Healthy Lifestyle

In the end, the individuals who benefitted from 5 hot baths a week may have benefitted from them so much because they already were leading a heart-healthy lifestyle. [2]

Prof. Jeremy Pearson — an associate medical director with the British Heart Foundation (BHF) in the United Kingdom (U.K.) who was not involved in the study – said:

“This study shows an association between having regular hot baths and some indicators of better heart and circulatory health.

However, this is just an observation and might be related to other lifestyle factors, such as people who have regular baths may also be more likely to live a low-stress lifestyle, or have a healthier diet.

Far more research is needed to understand the link before doctors start prescribing a hot bath to the elderly.”

Not for Everyone

Some people, such as those with multiple sclerosis (MS), migraine headaches, or auto-immune diseases, shouldn’t soak in a hot bath, as doing so can make symptoms worse. [1]

Though the study found that soaking in hot water is beneficial for those with heart disease, the Cleveland Clinic warns that people with existing heart conditions should avoid hot baths and hot tubs entirely.

Cardiologist Dr. Curtis Rimmerman explained on Cleveland Clinic’s website:

“A sudden rise in body temperature creates significant stress on the cardiovascular system, predominantly via a cascade of adjustments resulting in an elevated heart rate. The higher heart rate – especially in the presence of reduced heart function, heart arrhythmias, and coronary artery blockages – can precipitate a cardiac event such as blood flow problems and, in the worst case scenario, manifest as a heart attack.”

If you have a heart condition, talk to your doctor before immersing yourself in hot water. But if you’re healthy, enjoy to your heart’s content, and reap all of the physical and mental benefits that come with lounging in a tub.

Don’t have a bathtub? Try try a sauna instead!


[1] Bustle

[2] Medical News Today