Sandbox Sickness: Diarrhea-Causing Bacteria Found on Playgrounds

A small study by researchers in Spain finds that dangerous germs are lurking on playgrounds. [1]

For the study, a team of scientists tested sandboxes and searched for Clostridium difficile, or C. diff. They found it alright, and it was the drug-resistant variety.

C. diff is usually considered a hospital-acquired infection; but the rates of infection outside of hospitals are increasing, the authors of the study write.

One possible source of C. diff exposure is sandboxes, the researchers found. The bacterium may wind up there from the feces of humans and other animals. (Cats + sand = litter box.) The bug can survive for weeks or months outside of the body.

C. diff in sandboxes is especially dangerous for young children, the primary group at risk of catching the bug from playgrounds. Why? Because kids have high rates of geophagia. In other words, they eat sand and dirt.

Studying the Nitty-Gritty of C. Diff in Sandboxes

For the study, researchers tested sand from 40 sandboxes in public parks in Madrid, Spain, including 20 that were designated for children and 20 that were for dogs. C. diff was found in 9 of the sandboxes intended for kids, and 12 of the sandboxes intended for dogs.

An analysis of the different C. diff strains revealed that 2 of the samples from the kids’ sandboxes and 6 samples from the dogs’ sandboxes had “toxigenic” strains, meaning that they produced toxins. These toxins can lead to a damaged colon lining and diarrhea. Some strains of C. diff produce more toxins than others.

Every sample that the researchers tested was resistant to at least 2 antibiotics, making the infection more difficult to treat.

Read: Dutch “Poop Bank” Will Offer Treatment, Research of C. Diff as Antibiotics Fail

The researchers wrote that because of the risks posed by C. diff, tests for the bacterium should be included in future environmental-risk assessments.

Lead researcher Dr. Jose Blanco, from the Department of Animal Health at Complutense University of Madrid, said:

“This study shows the wide distribution of [these] bacteria in the environment, and the need for more studies to elucidate its presence in our communities.” [2]

Past studies in the U.S. have found other pathogens in sandboxes, including Toxoplasma gondii, which can cause flu-like symptoms, and parasitic Ascaris (nematode worm) eggs that can cause abdominal discomfort.

If you’re not totally disgusted yet, this should do it: Different types of roundworms have been found in playgrounds. Baylisascaris procyonis, spread by raccoons, can cause neurological damage and death. Thankfully, it’s extremely rare. Then there’s Toxocara roundworms – these stomach-turning creatures cause about 70 cases of blindness in U.S. children each year.

About Clostridium Difficile

Source: Medical News Today

C. diff infection can be hard to treat. The bacteria cause an intestinal infection that can lead to severe diarrhea which, in turn, can lead to dangerous dehydration. The symptoms of mild to moderate C. diff infection typically include:

  • Watery diarrhea 3 or more times a day
  • Mild abdominal cramping and tenderness [3]

Serious infections can cause:

  • Watery diarrhea 10 to 15 times a day
  • Abdominal cramping and pain, which may be severe
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Fever
  • Blood or pus in the stool
  • Nausea
  • Dehydration
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Swollen abdomen
  • Kidney failure
  • Increased white blood cell count [3]

Severe complications can arise from C. diff infection, including:

  • Toxic megacolon, a condition in which the colon is unable to expel gas and stool, causing it to become greatly distended (megacolon). If not treated in time, the colon can rupture, causing bacteria from the colon to enter the abdominal cavity, requiring emergency surgery. Toxic megacolon is sometimes fatal.
  • Bowel perforation, a rare condition caused by extensive damage to the lining of the large intestine or after toxic megacolon.
  • Death [3]

A single course of antibiotics can cause C. diff. infection.

How to Prevent C. Diff Infection

To help prevent your little ones from getting sick from sandboxes, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends:

  • Keeping sandboxes covered when not in use to keep insects and animals out.
  • Letting sand dry before covering the sandbox, as wet sand is an ideal place for bacteria to grow.
  • Raking the sand regularly to remove debris, clumps, and other foreign material.
  • Not allowing pets to play in the sandbox… for the obvious reasons. [2]


[1] Live Science

[2] CBS News

[3] Mayo Clinic

Medical News Today

Storable Food

Odd New Marijuana-Related Illness Sending People to the ER

There are few medical conditions marijuana can’t help, including nausea. But reports of a new marijuana-related illness are on the rise, characterized by cyclic episodes of nausea and vomiting. [1]

The illness, deemed cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome, or CHS, is an illness acquired by people who, well, smoke a lot of weed. It is linked to heavy, prolonged cannabis use. The only remedy appears to be a hot shower, and it has become the key warning sign for physicians trying to diagnose the syndrome. In fact, many CHS patients have a compulsive need to shower. [2]

Vomiting cycles typically last about 30 minutes, but can resume if the person starts smoking marijuana again.

Physicians say people come into the emergency room sometimes 3 or 4 times before finally being correctly diagnosed, because the symptoms so closely resemble stomach bugs. [1]

Emergency rooms in Colorado have seen a steady rise in puking pot users in recent years, according to Dr. Kenneth Heard, an ER doctor in the state, who said:

“It is certainly something that, before legalization, we almost never saw. Now we are seeing it quite frequently.”

Denver physician Dr. Eric Lavona said:

“These folks are really suffering. People can get pretty sick.”

Heard and a team of doctors documented this rise in CHS cases in a 2015 paper published in Academic Emergency MedicineThey looked at 120,000 patient visits – half of which were studied in 2008 to 2009 (the “pre-liberalization” period of marijuana) and the other from 2010 to 2011. The team discovered that the number of patients exhibiting cyclical vomiting doubled in that time frame. [2]

Cases of CHS have also been reported in other states where pot has been legalized, including the District of Columbia. [1]

Doctors are getting fairly good at diagnosing CHS in states where marijuana is legal, but patients in states without legalization would be hard-pressed to get a correct diagnosis. Doctors in those states are more likely to diagnose patients with Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome, which has nearly identical symptoms.

A correct diagnosis is important, though, because CHS can cause kidney failure in extreme cases. But the good news is stopping cannabis use ends symptoms within days. [3]

Heard explained:

“Patients are given IV fluids and medication to resolve the vomiting and help with the pain. But the treatment really is to stop using marijuana, or at least cut back severely, and that’s really the only way to make it better.”

It is unknown how many people have CHS, because the syndrome was only discovered 10 years ago.

Heard said:

“The science behind it is not clear. The most likely cause is that people using marijuana frequently and in high doses have changes in the receptors in their bodies, and those receptors become dysregulated in some way, and it starts causing pain.”

It’s something to keep in mind when you’re packing that third or fourth bowl.


[1] The Daily Caller

[2] Inverse

[3] The Huffington Post

Storable Food