Injecting Wastewater Underground Triggers Earthquakes Miles Away

Natural oil and gas companies insist that hydraulic fracturing (fracking) is a safe process, but many scientists are arguing that the drilling practice causes earthquakes – which aren’t terribly safe. Now, a new study shows that injecting wastewater from fracking underground can trigger earthquakes miles away from the site. [1]

In the United States, 2 billion gallons of fossil-fuel-industry wastewater gets pumped underground through thousands of underground tubes. The purpose of injecting wastewater is to store it out of sight and to keep it from entering drinking water.

But not being able to see the brine- and chemical-filled liquid doesn’t mean it’s harmless. The recent study, published in the journal Science, shows that injecting wastewater can trigger earthquakes far from injection wells.

The problem is so serious that 1 in 50 people in the U.S. are at-risk of experiencing a fracking-related earthquake, according to a recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) analysis. Wastewater injection wells are concentrated in Oklahoma, Texas, California, and Kansas, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

Earthquakes caused by injection wells have rattled Texas, but Oklahoma has been particularly hit hard by the temblors. Earthquakes used to be a rarity Oklahoma, but the state has experienced a 2,800% increase in quakes from 2009 to 2014. Experts have warned that the “big one” could slam Oklahoma at any time.

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In 2011, scientists linked an injection well in the state to a 5.6-magnitude earthquake that damaged a highway, rattled buildings, and generated dozens of aftershocks.

Emily Brodsky, Professor of Earth and Planetary Sciences at the the University of California, Santa Cruz, said: [2]

“Induced earthquakes are becoming more and more of an issue in central and the eastern U.S.”

Writing for The Conversation, Brodsky explained that she collaborated with her colleague, Thomas Goebel, to find out how injection wells cause earthquakes so far away.

The duo examined injection wells around the world to determine how the number of earthquakes changed with the distance from injection. They found that some wells triggered quakes up to 6 miles away. And while conventional wisdom states that injecting wastewater into sedimentary rock rather than harder underlying rock reduces the risk of triggering larger and more distant earthquakes, Brodsky and her colleague found the opposite to be true.

Brodsky wrote:

“At first glance, one might expect that the most likely place for wastewater disposal to trigger an earthquake is at the site of the injection well, but this is not necessarily true.”

Earthquakes Could Appear Miles Away – Here’s Why

In this diagram of an injection operation, the blue and red areas represent the spatial footprint of an injection into bedrock (blue) or the overlying sedimentary layer (red). The graphs below show the corresponding earthquake probabilities as a function of distance from the well. (Goebel and Brodsky/Science)

She explained that injecting wastewater underground can create a pressure that changes the shape of the surrounding rock and pushes faults toward slipping in earthquakes. This is called “poroelasticity.” Water doesn’t have to be injected directly into the fault to trigger earthquakes via poroelasticity, so the process can trigger them far from the injection well.

Brodsky and Goebel were able to identify 2 types of earthquakes triggered by injection wells, and this largely depended on what type of rock the wastewaster was being injected into. [1]

One type of earthquake formed close to the injection well, but stopped abruptly approximately a half-mile from the site. Earthquakes were more likely to form close to the site if the wastewater was injected into rigid bedrock (basement rock). There, pressure from water that spilled into a fault triggered the earthquake.

The other type of earthquake could form far from the well, often several miles away. This occurred when wastewater was pumped into softer sedimentary rock.

Brodsky gave the example of stepping on a latex balloon sitting in a cardboard box. The balloon bulges outward and presses against the walls of the box in the process. Likewise, as sedimentary rock balloons out from the injection of wastewater, it can push faults far from the injection well, resulting in seismic activity at a distance.

Deep disposal wells are quite small – less than a foot in diameter – so it’s unlikely that a fault will intersect directly with a fault that is ready to shift and cause a temblor. But at greater distances from the well, more faults are affected, and that increases the chance of encountering a fault that is “ready to blow,” so to speak, according to Brodsky. [2]

But since the pressure that a well exerts decreases over distance, it’s not clear how far earthquakes may occur from injection wells, she explained.

Brodsky concluded:

“The important insight of this study is that injection into sedimentary rocks activates more of these basement rocks than even direct injection. Sedimentary rock injection is not a safer alternative to basement injection.”

She anticipates that “there will be some resistance to this” study. [1]

“Multibillion-dollar industries are, you know, not rapid to change.”

Sources:

[1] The Washington Post

[2] PBS Newshour

EcoWatch

Uranus Entering Taurus Validates Astrology & The Zodiac: Volcanic Eruptions, Earthquakes & More

At the time of writing this article, Uranus had been in Taurus for less than three days and its effects have already been highly noticeable. Whenever Uranus or an outer planet changes signs, or is about to change signs, it could begin to become obvious in the weeks prior and during transition into the new sign. The cusp of signs are highly sensitive points and with Uranus it tends to more blatant.

Uranus rules natural disasters, unexpected sudden events, disruptions, and even accidents. It is also associated with many other things, both positive and negative, which I covered more in my previous New Moon article. Taurus is associated with the Earth, nature, and the physical.

The last time Uranus changed signs was on March 11th, 2011 literally happening as the Fukushima occurred. At that time, Uranus was moving from Pisces into Aries. Pisces is associated with oceans, and Aries is a ‘charging forward’ type of energy, which was reflective in the Tsunami. Within hours of Uranus entering Aries, there was explosions at the nuclear power plant which was more reflective of Aries because it is a Fire sign.

In the weeks leading up to Uranus entering Taurus on May 15th, the volcano in Kilauea, Hawaii started erupting. Then four days before Uranus transitioned, a volcano in Merapi, Indonesia erupted. Although this is one of the world’s most active volcanoes, this eruption came completely unexpectedly.

Volcanic eruptions and lava are a combined Aries/Taurus energy. Lava is fiery and it shoots out of the Volcano which is more of a Aries energy (Fire sign), however lava hardens to rock when it is dried which is more Taurean (Earth sign). Also, this Hawaiian volcano was accompanied by earthquakes which is also more reflective of Uranus in Taurus as opposed to Aries.

After Uranus changed signs, the conditions in Hawaii have worsened, a ‘Red Alert’ had been issued, and a much more sever eruption had occurred during the early hours of May 18th shooting plumes of ash 30,000 ft into the sky. Geologists are saying that it may continue to get worse with the potential of hurling large boulders, which is also more Taurean.

Uranus changing signs could also manifest in other types of natural disasters, however, the ones that reflect the energies of the signs will be more prevalent.

There have also been a highly unusual amount of earthquakes in other areas during this transition period. At the time of this writing, their have been earthquakes in California, Oklahoma, New Zealand, Philippines, Mayotte, Argentina, and Tonga shortly before and after Uranus changed signs. Many of them higher than 5.5 magnitude on the scale. Although earthquakes are not rare and happen frequently around the world, there have been a higher amount than usual during this period. This combined with the volcanic activity have gotten the attention of the mainstream media.

Another Uranian manifestation occurring are the severe storms happening in the North East of the United States which is the most populated part of the country. This began on May 15th and a ‘state of emergency’ had been issued in New York as a result. Damaging winds, tornadoes, and strong downpour of hail have occurred with several people being killed. There is concern of flash flooding and blinding downpours to occur as well.

In content that I had released previously, I had mentioned these possibilities occurring. You can see that in the video embedded below which was published on May 12th.

These events and manifestations that occur when a planet changes signs validate both astrology and the tropical zodiac. Another great example of this is the #MeToo movement which initiated the week leading up to Jupiter entering Scorpio in early October. Scorpio is associated with secrets, fears, and sex. Jupiter rules the media, it can be revealing, and in Scorpio can help to overcome fears.

In recent years, people have been disputing the zodiac to be incorrect due to precession, which is the constellations slowly moving from where they were. However, the tropical zodiac which is primarily used in Western astrology is not suppose to be aligned with constellations, it is based on the relationship between the Earth and the Sun.

astrology, astrology readings, carmen di luccioThe Sun enters Cardinal signs (Aries, Cancer, Libra, Capricorn) on the Equinoxes and Solstices which are also the beginning of the seasons. Then we have a ‘fixed’ sign (Taurus, Leo, Scorpio Aquarius) in the middle of each season, and a mutable sign at the end (Gemini, Virgo, Sagittarius, Pisces).  Four seasons with three signs each is how we end up with 12 signs in a symmetrical and balanced layout.

All the other planets that we observe are calibrated to this Earth-Sun relationship based on the distance that planet is from the Sun in the sky based on our perspective here on Earth. For example, as I am writing this article when the Sun is at 26 degrees of Taurus, and Venus is 31 degrees ahead of the Sun, therefore Venus is at 27 degrees Gemini of the Tropical Zodiac.

Looking for insight on how this period is affecting you? Or perhaps looking to better understand your life and its potentials? Get a personalized astrology reading with Carmen (author of this article) specific to you based on your exact birth date, time, and location. Click here for more information or to order. You can also follow me on INSTAGRAM, FACEBOOK , YOUTUBE, or join my MAILING LIST for more astrology related content.

Hawaii Volcanic Eruption Intentionally Triggered to Generate Massive Tsunami?

An increasing number of earthquakes under Hawaii’s Kilauea volcano preceded the appearance of fissures spewing molten lava in the lower Puna region of the Big Island on May 3. The newly active fissures have led to the destruction of homes, evacuation of residents, closure of roads, and emission of poisonous sulfuric gases that will impact […]

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Increased Fire, Hurricanes, & Earthquakes: What’s Happening On Earth?

A recent earthquake at the Iran-Iraq border, apocalyptic-like fires in northern California, the fall hurricanes sweeping the U.S., and oddly, the United Kingdom’s hurricane Ophelia, you might be beginning to wonder why so many catastrophes are occurring.

Entire countries have been affected by the ravages of disaster, natural or otherwise. Where is the next one going to hit and will it affect you?

Educated guesses range from the latest scientific global warming computer models to doomsayers drenched in generational storytelling hailing “end times,” or the punishment of a loving invisible father.

So, what’s going on?

Before losing yourself in fear-based short-sighted speculation, it’s helpful to take the wide view, checking in with the history of the planet, humanity, and science.

Let’s investigate.

Earth, a Living Organism

Our planet is a living organism, subject to internal and external processes and forces locally and beyond as part of its solar system, the Milky Way galaxy, and the entire Universe.

Some of these processes are visible to the naked eye within our physical material world; others are invisible as parts of our metaphysical immaterial Universe.

A living organism, just like you, continuously seeks balance within an always-changing dynamic environment so that it might not only survive, but thrive — the essential nature of Creation.

In every moment Earth is adjusting to shifts in:

  • the still-mysterious planet’s core and mantle, affecting volcanoes and earthquakes
  • energy exchanges between the solid earth and the fluid motion of the Earth’s atmosphere causing changes in atmospheric pressure
  • the flow of the liquid iron within Earth’s outer core that alters the planet’s magnetic field and surface air temperature

Beyond our local environment, the Earth is subject to the forces of:

  • the gravitational pull of the sun and the moon, also known as axial precession or the Earth’s wobble
  • solar flares and coronal mass injections that impact the Earth’s ionosphere, or upper atmosphere
  • the movement of our planet around the sun and the solar system as it traverses the Milky Way galaxy
  • high-energy cosmic rays bombarding the planet from the Milky Way and beyond

Dizzy, yet? And this is just a tiny fraction of what’s occurring on a daily basis beyond our harried awareness.

Just like local high and low-pressure systems ebb and flow, creating periods of high to low weather activity, so do we have different periods ranging from relative quiet to seeming chaos.

Add a confluence of events, and we now have a “perfect storm.”

Human Influences

Perhaps that perfect storm is the Age of Humans. The new era was first introduced by Nobel Prize-winning atmospheric chemist Paul Crutzen and renowned biologist Eugene Stoermer in a scientific newsletter in 2000.

Anthropocene: The impact of this potentially devastating new chapter to Earth’s history is still yet to be written — not to mention, hotly debated.

Sulfur emissions, fossil fuel extraction and burning, nitrogen fertilizer runoff, factory emissions, radioactive fallout, factory farming, mineral extraction, concrete, plastics, human-caused species extinction . . .

A new human-induced geological epoch; a planet required to work harder to balance itself.

Mysterious Forces

In addition to the physical tension we’ve added to the planet is the self-inflicted burden we carry as we continue to support an unjust world where more than half the population of the planet is still trying just to survive, never mind thrive.

Meanwhile, humanity is undergoing an evolutionary leap (induced by its internal processes) in consciousness as a new generation of awakened souls become Humanity 2.0 initiates, making Humanity 1.0 look like the age of ignorance.

War, social unrest, anger — it’s all energy, too. On the other end of the spectrum is love, compassion, kindness, hope. Science is just beginning to explore and understand the invisible forces of the human body, the human collective, the Universe, and even the force responsible for it all.

On a local level, the HeartMath Institute’s new science of interconnectivity seeks “to gain new insights into the interconnectedness of human/animal health and behavior and the sun and earth’s magnetic activity.”

HeartMath hypothesizes that “collective human consciousness affects the global information field” and they are gathering scientific data to prove it. In turn, the sun and magnetic fields affect human behaviour. (It must be a full moon out there because . . .)

At this point, beyond our little solar system and Milky Way galaxy, it’s all one great big guess. Intelligent design? Master controller?

But not really. Let’s investigate.

Your Big Picture Takeaway

Unity consciousness merges the left and right hemispheres of your brain (your physical/metaphysical worlds or science/spirituality), joining the brain with the heart to view the world internally and externally, a higher level of consciousness.

The epoch evolutionary leap from Humanity 1.0 to 2.0 is not the merging of man and machine; it’s the leap from separation consciousness to unity consciousness that recognizes everything is obviously interconnected and interdependent.

Global coherence (unity) then becomes universal coherence or Universal Consciousness.

The processes of Creation that “create” more of itself are not separate from what it creates, but contained and sourced from within. Reiterating, Creation, the processes of Creation, and what is created are ONE and the same.

Creation is its own power source. All of creation is making love for the purpose of existing in perpetuity. Its power source? The energy of Love — sourced from within.

The hard-wired scientific community will only prove this by embracing a multidisciplinary approach to its research. It’s coming. You can wait, or . . .

What Can I Do? 

Realize everything is energy that is interconnected. Be love. Treat everything and everyone as part of you. In your compassion, leave nothing and no one behind. This is what love would do.

Opening your heart wider than you ever thought possible will make you a powerful force for good on this planet. Because we are interdependent, it will immediately impact you. (How cool is that?)

If you’re committed to making sure you’re a part of Humanity 2.0, download the Humanity 2.0: Activating Your XFactor free guide by clicking here.

Originally published on Your Brilliant Future Here Now.