The Hidden Danger of Hops in Beer & 3 Ancient Healing (Hopless) Beer Recipes by Mark Sloan

Modern beer is marketed as sexy and masculine, but if beer is such a macho drink, then why does it contain the most potent estrogenic plant on earth?

The hops in modern beer lowers testosterone, reduces sexual function and fertility and is probably the main cause of the ‘beer gut’ and ‘man boob’ phenomenon that many heavy beer drinkers have.  Furthermore, estrogen is a powerful cause of dementia, stroke, heart disease and cancer.

Beer pouring

The truth is that hops isn’t required to make beer and before it was used, ancient beer recipes were incredibly medicinal.  Hop-free beer is mentally and sexually stimulating.  Some ancient brews, which you will learn about in this presentation, can even raise testosterone.

But in the 1500s, a law was passed that forced German beer makers to abandon their ancient recipes and begin producing modern “cancer beer” with hops in it.

In this presentation you’ll learn why you should never drink hopped beer and where you can get the same ancient sacred recipe beer that sustained and enhanced the physical prowess, health, resilience, fertility and lives of our ancestors.

Continue reading:

28+ Earthships in Ontario, Canada | The Earthship Revolution

People in Ontario and all across the world, with big hearts and unbreakable human spirits, are escaping dystopian cities and creating a new and better culture from the ground up. For many of them, the process begins with an Earthship home. Get ready to see 28+ Earthships in Ontario, Canada.

No form of human habitation even comes close to the resilience, structural indestructibility and freedom provided by an Earthship house. That’s why Earthships are rapidly being built across the world in many countries. Interest in this revolutionary form of housing has never been greater.

Utilizing the free resource of used tires as its main building component, people are building their Earthships for far less than the cost of an ordinary ‘matchbox’ house. An Earthship meets virtually all the needs of its inhabitants, and in the case of a widespread power outage when normal homes become inhabitable, Earthships remain fully operational and habitable.

This article is a collection of the growing list of Earthships that have been built across Ontario, Canada. If you know of any Earthships that I’ve missed, feel free to reach out and let us know so they can be added to the list.

The Collingwood Earthship in Collingwood, Ontario

The Collingwood Earthship was built by Matt Code.

  • Website:
  • Email:

The Windchaser’s Earthship in Port Dover, Ontario

Near Port Dover built by Craig and Connie Cook.

The Bancroft Earthship in Bancroft, Ontario

Pat and Chuck Potter opened up their home in Bancroft, ON to explain the technology behind their off-grid solar power heated house. The very first Earthship built in Canada. Pat Potter passed away in Summer 2014.

  • Owners: Chuck and Pat Potter
  • Start Date: 1992

‘Northern Dirtbags’ Earthship-Inspired Home in Cochrane Ontario

The Northern Dirtbags Earthship in Cochrane

‘Northern Ontario Earthship’ in Sudbury, Ontario

I’ve taken the liberty to nickname this one The Earthship Shed-House. If you’ve got any updated photos of this build feel free to send them over.

I haven’t seen any updates on this build since 2010 on their blog. Let me know if you hear anything and send over a finished photo.

Miller Earthship, Seguin, Ontario

Not much is known about the Miller Earthship; I couldn’t find any website or photos. Perhaps they want it that way.

The Miller Earthship in Seguin, Ontario.

Wolf Earthship in Hillsburgh, Ontario

The Wolf Earthship was built by Tom Wolf in the town of Hillsburgh (near Orangeville), Ontario. No photos or video tours exist on this one.

The Wolf Earthship in Hillsburgh, Ontario.

Williams Earthship-Inspired Home in Six Nations, Ontario

The Williams Earthship is part Earthship and part Earthbag Building. Construction began in 2014.

  • Owners: Skyler & Kahsenniyo Williams
  • Start Date: Summer 2014
  • Construction type: Earthbag/Earthship-Inspired
The Williams Family Earthship in Six Nations, Ontario.

The Fenton Earthship in Clear Creek, Ontario

The Knell Earthship in Prince Edward County, Ontario

Located in the beautiful and historic Prince Edward Country Jim and Lynn Knell built an off grid Earthship-inspired home.

  • Owners: Jim & Lynn Knell
  • Start Date: July 2008
  • Move In Date: December 2011
  • Cost: $161,000
  • Website:
  • Facebook Page: Tirehouse

The Killaloe Earthship in Killaloe, Ontario

  • Owners: Errol Star Francis
  • Notes: Foreclosure, house currently uninhabited.

The Martin Earthship in Mallorytown, Ontario

The Martin Earthship in Mallorytown, Ontario.

The Mohawk Seedkeepers Earthship in Ohsweken, Ontario

This Earthship is used as a food security center at Mohawk Seedkeeper Gardens in Ohsweken, Ontario.

Flower’s Earthship in Six Nations, Ontario

Paid for and built by Michael Reynold’s himself and a large team of volunteers, the Flower’s Earthship was part of a housing project for Francine Doxtator and her family, who now have a beautiful off-grid Earthship to call their own in Six Nations, Ontario.

Volunteers gather for a final photo after building Fran’s Earthship.

The Houstoun Earthship in Clayton, Ontario

The Houstoun Earthship in Clayton, Ontario.
  • Owners: Hilary Houstoun
  • Start Date: September 1996
  • Move In Date: May 2004
  • Cost: $224,000
  • Email:

The Graf-Levac Earthship in Kemptville, Ontario

The Graf-Levac Earthship in Kemptville , Ontario.

The Bastard Tirehouse in Portland, Ontario

Trent Hills Earthship in Trent Hills, Ontario

The Trent Hills Earthship was built by a young family in Trent Hills, Ontario.

The Trent Hills Earthship in Trent Hills, Ontario.

As more people begin to free themselves from a world gone mad, more and more Earthships are ‘landing’ in Ontario and in countries across the world. I hope you enjoyed this article, be sure it to share it with your friends and family.

Thanks for reading!

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Your Ultimate Guide to The ‘Blue Bottle’ Experiment | Methylene Blue Science Experiment

Looking for a fun science experiment to show your children or grandchildren? Or perhaps you’re a student and want your science teacher to do something interesting in class. Either way, the answer is The Blue Bottle Experiment! It’s fun, looks like a magic trick and you’ll learn something valuable from it.

The Blue Bottle Experiment is a classic chemistry experiment involving a medicinal blue dye called methylene blue, which you can use to impress all your friends and family.

High school chemistry teachers often use The Blue Bottle Experiment to illustrate the concept of oxidation and reduction reactions to their students. In the experiment, a methylene blue solution is “magically” transformed from blue to colourless, and then back again by shaking it. The interesting thing is that it’s not magic at all; the fascinating phenomenon just takes a basic understanding of chemistry to explain.

The Blue Bottle Experiment. Image source: University of Wisconsin Department of Chemistry

How it Works

Methylene blue is a synthetic chemical that comes in crystalline form. When dissolved in water it yields a blue liquid. And when sugar is added to the water, a reaction takes place between the sugar and the methylene blue, which turns the solution colorless.

When you shake the colorless liquid, the methylene blue reacts with oxygen (introduced by the shaking), which restores the blue color.

The color change occurs because methylene blue exists in two forms. The first is a reduced form, which is colorless, and the other is an oxidized form, which is blue.

The fact that methylene blue can shift back-and-forth between oxidized and reduced is why they call it a redox agent. This characteristic also explains how it helps prevent oxidant production within cellular mitochondria, which keeps the metabolism within your cells operating efficiently.

The two forms of methylene blue. Image source:

This flip-flop from colored liquid to clear liquid can be performed a number of times in this experiment until either the oxygen or the glucose in the bottle are fully consumed.

Once this happens, you can add additional oxygen by uncapping the liquid for a few moments to let fresh air into the bottle, or you can add more glucose to the solution and continue the experiment.

Now that you have a basic understanding of how it works, here are the materials you’ll need to conduct the experiment.

Materials needed:

  • Glucose
  • 1% methylene blue solution
  • Potassium hydroxide
  • Distilled water
  • 500mL flask with stopper
  • 500mL graduated cylinder
  • 2 x weighing dishes


Prepare your “blue bottle” solution with the following four steps.

  1. Begin by adding 300mL of distilled water to your 500mL flask.
  2. Add 8 grams of potassium hydroxide to the water, and stir until the solid is dissolved.
  3. Add 10 grams of glucose and a few drops of methylene blue to that same flask and fill the remainder with water until it reaches the 500mL mark.
  4. Once complete, cap the flask with your stopper and mix thoroughly.


Once you’ve prepared the solution, you can either transfer it to a water bottle and put the caps on, or leave it in the 500mL flask and cap it with a stopper. Using a water bottle you can probably surprise people more easily, as they will not suspect it and probably be more shocked and amazed by the color change.

Whichever receptacle you choose, set the bottle down and let it rest undis­turbed for a few minutes until the solution becomes colorless.

Now your ‘magic’ blue bottle demonstration is ready!

Pick up the bottle and show every­body the clear “water” inside. Then gently shake it and watch it turn blue. Voila! The universe just folded inside out for everybody watching.

Once the solution inside your bottle is entirely blue, put it down and let it rest until the liquid becomes clear once again.

Repeat this process as many times as you’d like. At some point, you will need to remove the cap to re-introduce more oxygen into your bottle or add more glucose.


After you’re done with your magic show, flush the methylene blue solution down the drain and feel good that you’ve added something beneficial to the water supply that will protect all life everywhere.

The Blue Bottle Experiment is a simple and timeless experiment that can be done by pretty much anyone to illustrate the reduction and oxida­tion properties of methylene blue or to get children interested in science.

And to the students out there… Be sure to ask your chemistry teacher to do The Blue Bottle Experiment for you in class at least once a week.

Thanks for reading! If you want to learn more about methylene blue, check out my #1 bestselling book The Ultimate Guide to Methylene Blue.

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Methylene Blue for Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and Dementia

The blockbuster drug methylene blue is experimentally proven to restore brain function in people with Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and other forms of dementia – but big pharma says you can’t have it!

Existing ‘approved’ drugs for dementia obviously don’t work or they would be curing people and the disease would vanish. But that doesn’t mean effective treatment’s don’t exist.

In this article you’re going to learn what’s happening in the brain of a person with dementia, and how the inexpensive drug methylene blue can help rejuvenate the aging brain. Methylene blue is so effective for dementia that some might even call it a cure.

What Causes Dementia?

Mainstream medicine admits they don’t know what causes brain disorders like Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and other forms of dementia.

For the past 50 years, mainstream medical theory has suggested that genetic defects are the cause, but millions of dollars spent on research have resulted in no effective treatments, let alone cures.

Modern medicine’s commitment to finding a genetic causation of dementia has blinded them to the trail of scientific evidence showing the true cause of the disease.

Let’s dust off that trail now and shine a spotlight on the evidence.

A groundbreaking study from 2017 reports that as the brain ages, mitochondrial metabolism decreases and that this phenomenon is possibly the main culprit behind many neurological diseases, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.[i]

What this means is that if your brain cells are metabolizing properly, dementia and other neurological diseases will not exist. All the criteria associated with a healthy brain – from memory retrieval speed, concentration, and focus – are dependent on adequate energy supply in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

As energy production (also known as the metabolic rate) within cells of the brain decline with age, so too does your ability to think, remember, and speak clearly.

Nitric Oxide Linked to Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Dementia

One of the dominant factors responsible for the curbing of energy production with age is nitric oxide.

Doctors and nurses are taught in medical training that nitric oxide is a ‘miracle molecule’ of anti-aging, brain health, athletic performance and overall health. But this theory is being increasingly disproven by evidence mounting in recent decades.

Nitric oxide is not a miracle molecule; it’s a toxic free radical found in air pollution, and its causative role in dementia-related disorders like Alzheimer’s disease is becoming increasingly clear. For example, NO was found to accumulate around the plaques inside the brain of Alzheimer’s patients,[ii] and it’s been hypothesized that NO could be responsible for brain cell death found in Alzheimer’s and other forms of dementia.[iii] The deleterious effects of NO suggest that nitric oxide inhibitors, like methylene blue, could be remarkably effective for treating dementia.

One fascinating and useful attribute of methylene blue for treating brain disorders is that it accumulates in the brain, making it of particular interest for dementia and all kinds of brain-related disorders.

According to Dr. Raymond Peat, “nitric oxide poisons the ability to oxidize glucose into carbon dioxide, increases lactic acid, and the cell has less energy and is more excited by the acetylcholine, so basically it becomes susceptible to dying in proportion to the overstimulation of acetylcholine.”

But what does nitric oxide have to do with methylene blue? Methylene blue happens to be one of the most potent nitric oxide inhibitors known. It is a tool that can powerfully reduce NO synthesis and scavenge existing nitric oxide from the blood and body.

Methylene Blue and The Hallmarks of Alzheimer’s Disease

Scientists studying the brains of Alzheimer’s patients have noticed commonalities among patients, including abnor­mally shaped tau proteins, or “neurofibrillary tangles” within brain cells called neurons. Let’s look at the impact of methylene blue on these hallmarks and determine if it can help resolve them.

Hallmark 1: Neurofibrillary “Tangles”

The brains of mice that’ve been genetically engineered to lack tau protein do not function properly, leading researchers to conclude the mis­shapen tau proteins found in brain cells of Alzheimer’s patients play a role in the disease.

A group of scientists from Gakushuin University and Keio University School of Medicine in Japan published a study in 2019 that reports methylene blue can repair the problem by inhibiting the formation of tau neurofibrillary tangles in the brain.[xii]

Hallmark 2: Beta Amyloid Plaques

Another hallmark of the Alzheimer’s-diseased brain is the appearance of beta amyloid plaque surrounding brain cells. Remarkably, methylene blue has been shown to prevent beta amyloid plaques from form­ing on the outside of neurons.[xiii]

Evidence suggests that methylene blue can help resolve both of the primary hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease. Not bad for a fabric dye!

But what about on actual Alzheimer’s patients outside the laboratory? Can methylene blue help actual patients with dementia?

Clinical Trial: Methylene Blue Boosts Brain of Dementia Patients

In a study on Alzheimer’s patients in 2019, scientists administered 8mg-16mg of methylene blue daily while monitoring their brain function. The methylene blue stopped Alzheimer’s disease dead in its tracks![x] [xi]

“Treatment with 8mg-16mg MB daily reduced cognitive decline by more than 85%! That is the perverted medical profession’s way of saying that MB effectively stopped AD in its tracks, or at least its cognitive symptoms, which is what this disease is all about. It is a type of dementia after all. Perhaps just as importantly, it found that drugs currently approved for managing symptoms of AD interfere with the therapeutic benefit of MB when administered together with it!”
– Georgi Dinkov

When a therapy stops cognitive decline by 85%, at what point do we say it cured the patient? I’m not going to make any claims here, but methylene blue is possibly as close to a cure as it gets.

Treatment Dose for Dementia

For those interested in using methylene blue for Alzheimer’s, an important finding from the study was that a dose of 200mg of methylene blue had no greater benefit than a much smaller dose of 8mg.

The study concluded that methylene blue is expected to be therapeutic in doses up to 16mg, and patients would see no additional benefit from taking higher doses.

“Treatment benefit is predicted to be maximal at 16 mg/day as monotherapy,” the scientists reported.

Photodynamic Therapy: Methylene Blue + Red Light Therapy for Dementia

To make methylene blue therapy even more effective, synergistic healing and cognitive enhancement can be achieved by combining methylene blue therapy with red light therapy.

Methylene blue and red light therapy are two widely studied approaches for improving brain mitochon­drial respiration due to their ability to act directly on cellular metabolism and correct deficiencies therein.

According to scientists in a 2020 review, red light and methylene blue “have similar beneficial effects on mitochondrial function, oxidative damage, inflammation, and subsequent behavioral symptoms.”[xxi]

Combining methylene blue with red light therapy in a treatment protocol for dementia is one of the most promising techniques for synergisti­cally maximizing therapeutic potency and accelerating recovery of meta­bolically defective brain cells.


Existing ‘approved’ drugs for dementia don’t work, and effective therapies for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s are very much needed.

The blockbuster drug methylene blue is a powerful cognitive enhancing drug scientifically proven to restore brain function in people with Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and other forms of dementia.

For those who like to take their health into their own hands, methylene blue is a scientifically validated, sane and rational treatment approach.

Methylene blue is so effective at remedying the hallmarks of dementia that some might even call it a cure.


[i] Sonntag K-C, Ryu W-I, Amirault KM, et al. Late-onset Alzheimer’s disease is associated with inherent changes in bioenergetics profiles. Scientific Reports. 2017;7(1):14038.

[ii] McCann SM, Licinio J, Wong ML, Yu WH, Karanth S, Rettorri V. The nitric oxide hypothesis of aging. Exp Gerontol. 1998;33(7-8):813-826.

[iii] McCann SM. The nitric oxide hypothesis of brain aging. Exp Gerontol. 1997;32(4-5):431-440.

[iv] Gais S, Born J. Low acetylcholine during slow-wave sleep is critical for declarative memory consolidation. PNAS. 2004;101(7):2140-2144.

[v] Shytle RD, Silver AA, Lukas RJ, Newman MB, Sheehan DV, Sanberg PR. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors as targets for antidepressants. Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7(6):525-535.

[vi] Andreasen JT, Olsen GM, Wiborg O, Redrobe JP. Antidepressant-like effects of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists, but not agonists, in the mouse forced swim and mouse tail suspension tests. J Psychopharmacol. 2009;23(7):797-804.

[vii] Sawada Y, Nakamura M, Bito T, et al. Cholinergic urticaria: studies on the muscarinic cholinergic receptor M3 in anhidrotic and hypohidrotic skin. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130(11):2683-2686.

[viii] Sawada Y, Nakamura M, Bito T, et al. Decreased expression of acetylcholine esterase in cholinergic urticaria with hypohidrosis or anhidrosis. J Invest Dermatol. 2014;134(1):276-279.

[ix] Abdulla SAM, Dietrich EL, Syed MN, et al. Methylene blue inhibits the function of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. CNS & Neurological Disorders – Drug Targets.

[x] Schelter BO, Shiells H, Baddeley TC, et al. Concentration-dependent activity of hydromethylthionine on cognitive decline and brain atrophy in mild to moderate alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2019;72(3):931-946.

[xi] New study by TauRx shows a minimum dose of hydromethylthionine could slow cognitive decline and brain atrophy in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease. PRNewswire. 2019. Source:

[xii] Soeda Y, Saito M, Maeda S, et al. Methylene blue inhibits formation of tau fibrils but not of granular tau oligomers: a plausible key to understanding failure of a clinical trial for alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2019;68(4):1677-1686.

[xiii] Necula M, Breydo L, Milton S, et al. Methylene blue inhibits amyloid aβ oligomerization by promoting fibrillization. Biochemistry. 2007;46(30):8850-8860.

[xiv] TauRx Alzheimer’s drug ltmx fails in large study although some benefit seen.  NBC News. Source:

[xv] Second phase II study results for anti-tau Alzheimer’s treatment released. Alzheimer’s research UK. 2017.  Source:

[xvi] Wrubel KM, Riha PD, Maldonado MA, McCollum D, Gonzalez-Lima F. The brain metabolic enhancer methylene blue improves discrimination learning in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2007;86(4):712-717.

[xvii] Atamna H, Nguyen A, Schultz C, et al. Methylene blue delays cellular senescence and enhances key mitochondrial biochemical pathways. FASEB J. 2008;22(3):703-712.

[xviii] Potential alzheimer’s, parkinson’s cure found in century-old drug. ScienceDaily.  Source:

[xix] Glucose deprivation in the brain sets stage for Alzheimer’s disease, Temple study shows. EurekAlert!  Source:

[xx] Choudhury GR, Winters A, Rich RM, et al. Methylene blue protects astrocytes against glucose oxygen deprivation by improving cellular respiration. PLOS ONE. 2015;10(4):e0123096.

[xxi] Yang L, Youngblood H, Wu C, Zhang Q. Mitochondria as a target for neuroprotection: role of methylene blue and photobiomodulation. Translational Neurodegeneration. 2020;9(1):19.

The post Methylene Blue for Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and Dementia appeared first on ENDALLDISEASE.

Methylene Blue: Miracle Antidote for Poisonings and Overdoses

Got bit by a rattlesnake or eat a poisonous mushroom and looking for an antidote? Look no further than the wonder-drug methylene blue – a medicinal blue dye that acts as an antidote for chemical poisoning and overdose.

It’s inexpensive, easily obtainable, remarkably safe, and it’s the first line of defense in most hospital emergency rooms across the world used on people admitted for overdose and chemical poisonings of all types.[R]

If you’ve never heard of methylene blue, you aren’t paying attention! This drug is so essential and routinely used in hospital emergency rooms for conditions like circulatory shock, neuroprotection, severe allergic reactions, overdoses and chemical poisonings, that US, Japanese, Greek and Italian scientists have recommended that hospitals stockpile it.[R]

In this article, you’ll learn how and why methylene blue can be used as an antidote for all types of chemical poisonings or drug overdoses. Also included is the exact dose used by hospital as an antidote to chemical poisoning.

Methylene Blue History as an Antidote

The story of methylene blue as an antidote for poisonings and drug overdoses began around 1930, after Dr Matilda Brooks suggested using it as an antidote for cyanide and carbon monoxide poisoning. This recommendation came after a number of animal studies she conducted using methylene blue against the toxicity of cyanide and carbon monoxide.[R]

Since then, cyanide victims in emergency rooms worldwide have been successfully treated with methylene blue administered intravenously. But methylene blue works as an antidote for far more than just cyanide and carbon monoxide poisoning.

It’s important to understand that all chemical poisonings induce a situa­tion in the body called methemoglobinemia, which is a condition methylene blue has been FDA approved to treat. Once you understand this condition physiologically and how methylene blue can correct the root cause of the problem, you’ll understand its value as an antidote for virtually all chemical poisonings.

Methylene Blue for Methemoglobinemia

Methemoglobinemia is a blood disorder occurring when hemoglobin inside red blood cells becomes oxidized and loses its ability to transport oxygen. Oxidized hemoglobin is called methemo­globin and its presence in the blood leads to tissue hypoxia. In the absence of oxygen, nitric oxide and a cascade of stress hormones and pro-inflammatory signals are elevated, and energy production by cells is stifled.

Symptoms of Methemoglobinemia

Common symptoms of methemoglobinemia include:

  • Blue fingertips (cyanosis)
  • Shortness of breath (dyspnea)
  • Confusion
  • Seizures
  • Coma
  • Metabolic acidosis
  • Chocolate brown-colored blood

Causes of Methemoglobinemia

  • Cyanide
  • Carbon monoxide
  • Sodium nitrite/nitrate
  • Acetaminophen
  • Formaldehyde
  • Pharmaceutical drugs
  • Snake Venom
  • Mushroom Poisoning
  • The party drug ‘poppers’ (amyl nitrate)
  • Lidocaine, benzocaine and other anesthetics
  • Heavy metals like aluminum, copper, cadmium, etc.
  • Fluoride, found in toothpaste
  • Chemicals found in household cleaning products
  • Chemicals found in drugstore shampoos, deodorants and soaps
  • COVID-19 also induces methemoglobinemia

Methylene Blue Treatment for Methemoglobinemia

When doctors administer methylene blue intravenously to methemoglobinemia patients, the medicine acts as an antidote by converting methemo­globin back to hemoglobin, which restores its oxygen-carrying capacity. Once oxygen use is restored, all the symptoms exper­ienced by the patient are then eliminated and health is restored.

Most doctors and nurses administering methylene blue for chemical poisonings and overdoses are not aware that methylene blue’s value as an antidote extends far beyond its capacity to convert oxidized hemoglobin back to its regular form.

A 2018 study examining the use of methylene blue for cyanide poisoning wrote: “Its protective effects appear to be related to the unique properties of this redox dye, which, depending on the dose, could directly oppose some of the consequences of the meta­bolic depression produced by CN [cyanide] at the cellular level.”

Said differently, methylene blue works by correcting the defective cellular metabolism caused by the poison.[R]


What dose of methylene blue is effective for treating methemoglobinemia/poisoning/overdose?

In hospitals, methemoglobinemia victims are administered a methylene blue dose of 2mg/kg intravenously over the course of 5 minutes.

Somebody choosing to treat themselves orally in a glass of juice or water could use the same dose also. The following dose chart can help you determine the dose you’ll need for your bodyweight.

Methylene Blue Doses (1% Solution)
Bodyweight0.5 mg/kg1 mg/kg2 mg/kg
50kg/110lbs25mg dose
(50 drops/day)
50mg dose
(100 drops/day)
100mg dose
(200 drops/day)
55kg/121lbs27.5mg dose
(55 drops/day)
55mg dose
(110 drops/day)
110mg dose
(220 drops/day)
60kg/132lbs30mg dose (60 drops/day)60mg dose
(120 drops/day)
120mg dose
(240 drops/day)
65kg/143lbs32.5mg dose
(65 drops/day)
65mg dose
(130 drops/day)
130mg dose
(260 drops/day)
70kg/154lbs35mg dose (70 drops/day)70mg dose
(140 drops/day)
140mg dose
(280 drops/day)
75kg/165lbs37.5mg dose (75 drops/day)75mg dose
(150 drops/day)
150mg dose
(300 drops/day)
80kg/176lbs40mg dose (80 drops/day)80mg dose
(160 drops/day)
160mg dose
(320 drops/day)
85kg/187lbs42.5mg dose (85 drops/day)85mg dose
(170 drops/day)
170mg dose
(340 drops/day)
90kg/198lbs45mg dose (90 drops/day)90mg dose
(180 drops/day)
180mg dose
(360 drops/day)
95kg/209lbs47.5mg dose (95 drops/day)95mg dose
(190 drops/day)
190mg dose
(380 drops/day)
100kg/220lbs50mg dose (100 drops/day)100mg dose
(200 drops/day)
200mg dose
(400 drops/day)

Please note, oral doses of 0.5-2mg/kg mixed in water or juice taste bitter and can stain the teeth for a period of time. To avoid this, consuming it through a straw will reduce both the bitter taste and tooth staining.


Methemoglobinemia is the condition wrought by oxidized hemoglobin seen in poisonings and overdoses of all kinds. Oxidized hemoglobin is unable to carry oxygen, so the ailment causes widespread hypoxia, which can be deadly if not treated quickly. The key to treating it is to restore the hemoglobin back to its original (non-oxidized) state, and methylene blue is one of the safest and most effective ways to make that happen.

If you ever eat a poisonous mushroom or are bit by a rattlesnake and manage to call an ambulance to take you to the hospital, your treatment will most likely be methylene blue (and also activated charcoal and sodium bicarbonate).

For the people who like to be prepared or don’t want to risk having to wait for rescue crews, having a bottle of methylene blue close by at all times on your next hike or camping trip is a wise choice and could save your life.

Thanks for reading!

If you want to learn more about methylene blue, checkout my #1 bestselling book The Ultimate Guide to Methylene Blue at


Caroline FB, Luiza MS, Livia A, et al. Why methylene blue have to be always present in the stocking of emergency antidotes. Current Drug Targets.


Evidence-based review of the existing literature ultimately recommends stocking of Methylene Blue (MB) as an emergency antidote in the United States. The same is reported around the world in Japan, Greece, Italy and Canada. The observation that MB is always present as the main antidote required in emergency and critical care units calls for a revisit on its effects on the NO/cGMP system to reemphasize its multisystem actions. Therefore, the present review aimed to display the role of MB in emergency units, concerning: 1) Polytrauma and circulatory shock; 2) Neuroprotection, 3) Anaphylaxis and, 4) Overdose and poisoning.

Brooks MM. Methylene blue as antidote for cyanide and carbon monoxide poisoning. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1933;100(1):59-59.

To the Editor:  —I have just seen in The Journal, Dec. 3, 1932, page 1944, an article written by Dr. J. C. Geiger in which he mentioned several case histories of cyanide poisoning with and without the use of methylene blue (methylthionine chloride, U. S. P.).The action of methylene blue on cyanide and carbon monoxide has been known a long time in theoretical biology, but I was first to suggest that it be used as an antidote for cyanide and carbon monoxide poison cases, as a result of some studies which I made on animals under a grant from the medical school here, and as a result of extensive reading which I have done.At a meeting of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, which took place last April, Dr. Hanzlik heard my paper on the use of methylene blue as an antidote for cyanide and carbon monoxide

Haouzi P, Gueguinou M, Sonobe T, et al. Revisiting the physiological effects of methylene blue as a treatment of cyanide intoxication. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2018;56(9):828-840.


Background: Although methylene blue (MB) had long been proposed to counteract the effects of cyanide (CN) intoxication, research on its mechanisms of action and efficacy has been abandoned for decades. Recent studies on the benefits of MB in post-anoxic injuries have prompted us to reexamine the relevance of this historical observation.

Methods: Our study was performed in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats and on HEK293T epithelial cells. First, the effects and toxicity of MB (0-80 mg/kg) on circulation and metabolism were established in four urethane-anesthetized rats. Then nine rats received a lethal infusion of a solution of KCN (0.75 mg/kg/min) and were treated by either saline or MB, at 20 mg/kg, a dose that we found to be innocuous in rat and to correspond to a dose of about 4 mg/kg in humans. MB was also administered 5 min after the end of a sub-lethal exposure to CN in a separate group of 10 rats. In addition, ATP/ADP ratio, ROS production, mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and cellular O2 consumption rate (OCR) were determined in HEK293T cells exposed to toxic levels of CN (200 µM for 10 min) before and after applying a solution containing MB (1-100 µM for 10 min).

Results: Methylene blue was found to be innocuous up to 50 mg/kg. KCN infusion (0.75 mg/kg/min) killed all animals within 7-8 min. MB (20 mg/kg) administered at the same time restored blood pressure, cardiac contractility and limited O2 deficit, allowing all the animals to survive, without any significant methemoglobinemia. When administered 5 min after a non-lethal CN intoxication, MB sped up the recovery of lactate and O2 deficit. Finally, MB was able to decrease the production of ROS and restore the ATP/ADP ratio, Δψm as well as OCR of epithelial cells intoxicated by CN.

Conclusions: The present observations should make us consider the potential interest of MB in the treatment of CN intoxication. The mechanisms of the antidotal properties of MB cannot be accounted for by the creation of a cyanomethemoglobinemia, rather its protective effects appears to be related to the unique properties of this redox dye, which, depending on the dose, could directly oppose some of the consequences of the metabolic depression produced by CN at the cellular level.

The post Methylene Blue: Miracle Antidote for Poisonings and Overdoses appeared first on ENDALLDISEASE.

Methylene Blue: A Scientific Breakthrough for COVID-19?

Can methylene blue, an inexpensive drug that’s routinely used in hospital emergency rooms, cure COVID-19?  Emerging evidence shows MB can rapidly inactivate the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

Almost immediately following the declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020, scientists got to work studying ways to inhibit replication of the virus.  One medicine with great promise is methylene blue – a dye originally developed for the fabric industry in the 1800s which turned out to be highly medicinal for many diseases, including viruses.

Methylene blue has long been known for its potent anti-viral properties against deadly viruses.  Zika(15), West Nile(16), Ebola(17), HIV(18), Hepatitis(18), Herpes(21), Dengue(22), and many more, have all been scientifically reported to be rapidly inactivated by methylene blue. Can methylene blue also inactivate the virus responsible for COVID-19? 

In this article, I’m going to present evidence that methylene blue can 1) prevent COVID-19 transmission, 2) inactivate the COVID-19 virus, and  3) heal patients who have already been infected, perhaps better than any other medicine known.

Last but not least, a brand new randomized clinical trial tested oral methylene blue on hospitalized covid patients and showed the treatment “significantly improved SpO2 (oxygen saturation) and respiratory distress in COVID-19 patients, which resulted in decreased hospital stay and mortality.”(R)

1) Can Methylene Blue Prevent COVID-19?

The subpopulation of people with the highest risk of a diagnosis of COVID-19 are the elderly.  Elderly cancer patients have an even greater risk. Any medicine that can prevent infection in elderly terminal cancer patients is a superstar among medicines for COVID-19. This research has been done.

In 2020, scientists conducted an experiment on 2500 elderly terminal cancer patients by giving them methylene blue and seeing how many of them contracted the disease. 

The results?  None of the patients developed COVID-19.(R)

Is this a coincidence? Or is methylene blue a world class preventative medicine against COVID-19 infection?

2) Can Methylene Blue Inactivate SARS-CoV-2?

In March 2020, the same month as the pandemic was declared, a study was published showing methylene blue can “effectively eliminate SARS-CoV-2 within 2 minutes.”(R).  2 minutes!?  Why wasn’t this on the news?

“We propose that methylene blue is a promising drug for treatment of COVID-19,” wrote French scientists in a follow-up study in October 2020, in which very low doses of methylene blue showed powerful anti-viral activity against SARS-CoV-2.(R)

Not only has methylene blue proven itself valuable for treating COVID-19 patients, but it’s already fully stocked in hospitals.  (Methylene blue is the first line of treatment in hospital emergency rooms for poisonings and overdoses.) But instead of methylene blue, the treatment of choice has been mechanical ventilators, which are proven to make the health of patients worse.  If you haven’t already, be sure to read my article on mechanical ventilators.

3) ‘Methylene Blue Derivative Cures COVID’, says Dr Stella Immanuel

You may have heard the 2020 news that Nigerian doctor Stella Immanuel has been successfully using hydroxychloroquine to cure hundreds of COVID patients. 

Dr Stella Immanuel reported curing hundreds of COVID-19 patients using hydroxychloroquine, a derivative of methylene blue.

This news story was quickly censored and pulled from social media websites. Apparently their pharmaceutical investors would rather make billions of dollars selling vaccines then heal people.

Hydroxychloroquine is to this day the primary treatment for Malaria, and those looking to obtain it as a treatment or preventative for COVID-19 know it can be difficult to find.  Here’s some good news if you’re one of these people: hydroxychloroquine is derived from methylene blue.  In other words, methylene blue is the parent compound of hydroxychloroquine; it’s cheap, easily obtainable, and can be used in its place.

How Does Methylene Blue Treat COVID?

Recent research has shown that COVID-19 patients often experience high levels of oxidized forms of hemoglobin, called methemoglobin, just like patients with methemoglobinemia.  “Severely ill patients often show elevated methemoglobin (MetHb) and carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) concentrations in their blood as a marker of disease severity.”(R)  In fact, it has been said that methemoglobin “may play a central role in the pathogenesis of critical COVID-19 disease.”(R)  How can methylene blue help this situation?

Methylene blue is FDA approved to treat methemoglobinemia, a situation where the oxygen-carrying capacity of red blood cells is impaired.  Methylene blue is extremely effective at turning the oxidized hemoglobin back to its normal state, thus restoring oxygen transport throughout the blood.  As a result, the hypoxia experienced by people with methemoglobinemia (or COVID-19) is resolved and the patient’s health is restored.  Now you know how it works!

The following is another mechanism by which methylene blue could help COVID-19 patients.

Study: Methylene Blue Effective Against Pneumonia

In its most severe state, COVID-19 infection manifests itself as pneumonia, which includes damage to the lungs of patients.  Methylene blue has been studied as a treatment for pneumonia independent of COVID-19 infection and its results are promising.

A 2014 study tested methylene blue on rats with induced pneumonia.(R)  Methylene blue therapy was administered to the rats for 7 days at a dose of 2mg/kg/day. 

When researchers examined the lungs of the rats at the end of the 7 day trial, they found that methylene blue significantly inhibited inflammation, edema, fibrosis, and other biomarkers of lung damage. 

Since COVID-19 patients experience similar lung damage, this study represents indirect evidence that the damage seen in the lungs of severe COVID-19 patients might also benefit from methylene blue.

Methylene Blue COVID-19 Treatment Protocol

Evidence shows overwhelmingly that methylene blue is an effective preventative and treatment for COVID-19.  But why stop there?

You may have read my article Can Red Light Therapy Cure COVID-19?, in which I present evidence that red light therapy can accelerate healing of COVID patients.  What happens when you combine red light therapy with methylene blue?

When you combine light therapy with methylene blue therapy you get a breakthrough therapy called photodynamic therapy (PDT).  PDT has shown to synergistically fight viruses, including COVID-19(R), more powerfully than methylene blue therapy or red light therapy alone.

I don’t give out medical advice, and nothing in this article should be interpreted as such, but if I had COVID-19, here’s the photodynamic therapy protocol I would use to heal myself:

  • Methylene Blue: 20 drops in juice in the morning and 20 drops in juice before bed
  • Red light therapy: Sit under a red light therapy device for 30 minutes immediately following methylene blue administration.

Be sure to shine the red light directly on your bare skin during treatment, as clothing is a very efficient blocker of red and near-infrared light.  Also, the closer the light is to your body, the more deeply it will penetrate into tissues and the more photons of light will reach your cells, making it more effective.  For best results, position the light between 0-6 inches from the body.


Methylene blue has proven itself as a powerful anti-viral medicine for many popular viruses, including the SARS-CoV-2 virus responsible for COVID-19. 

Even in elderly terminal cancer patients – the population most vulnerable to infection by SARS-CoV-2 – evidence suggests methylene blue can completely prevent infection. 

The work of Dr Stella Immanuel has shown that hydroxychloroquine, a derivative of methylene blue, can powerfully restore health in infected patients.

COVID-19 manifests in many ways similar to the condition methemoglobinemia, which methylene blue has been FDA approved to treat.  This is one of many reasons methylene blue is so valuable for treating COVID-19.

Combine methylene blue with red light therapy and you’ve got yourself an even more potent therapy for treating COVID-19. 

Those who like to take their health into their own hands will be happy to hear that photodynamic therapy is one of the most potent treatment combinations against a multitude of viruses, and many other diseases.

If you want to learn more about methylene blue, checkout my bestselling book on the subject at


Inactivation of Zika virus in plasma and derivatives by four different methods

Yancui Wang 1Kai Ren 1Xinzhong Liao 1Guanwen Luo 2Kattareeya Kumthip 3Nipapan Leetrakool 4Shilin Li 1Limin Chen 1 5Chunhui Yang 1Yongjun Chen 1Affiliations expand


Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus with increasing prevalence in recent years. To reduce the risk of ZIKV transmission by transfusion, some mitigation strategies were recommended based on pathogen reduction technologies for blood products. In this study, we aimed to study the efficacy of several common pathogen reduction methods in the inactivation of ZIKV. The fresh frozen plasma and derivatives were spiked with a high titer of ZIKV or Sindbis virus (SINV). Viral titers and ZIKV RNA were measured before and after the inactivation treatment by methylene blue (MB), solvent/detergent (S/D), pasteurization, and low pH. The mean ZIKV infectivity titers in plasma and derivatives were 7.08 ± 0.14, 5.17 ± 0.14, 7.08 ± 0.14, and 5.80 ± 0.14 log10 TCID50 /mL, respectively before MB, S/D, pasteurization, and low pH inactivation. We found no detectable ZIKV RNA after five successive passages of inoculation on host cells, indicating there is no infectivity after inactivation. Similar inactivation results were observed for SINV. In conclusion, we achieved robust ZIKV inactivation through the four inactivation procedures in several blood products. These findings suggest that the pathogen reduction technologies commonly applied in plasma and derivatives have the capacity to mitigate the risk of ZIKV transmission by transfusion.

Methylene blue photoinactivation abolishes West Nile virus infectivity in vivo

James F Papin 1Robert A FloydDirk P DittmerAffiliations expand


The prevalence of West Nile virus (WNV) infections and associated morbidity has accelerated in recent years. Of particular concern is the recent demonstration that this virus can be transmitted by blood products and can cause severe illness and mortality in transfusion recipients. We have evaluated methylene blue (MB)+light as a safe and cost-effective means to inactivate WNV in vitro. This regimen inactivated WNV with an IC50 of 0.10 microM. Up to 10(7)pfu/ml of WNV could be inactivated by MB+light with no residual infectivity. MB+light inactivated three primary WNV isolates from the years 1999, 2002 and 2003 and prevented mortality in a murine model for WNV infection. Since MB is already approved for human use at a dose of 100mg/kg/day, we conjecture that MB+light treatment of blood products for high-risk patients will be efficacious and suitable for use in resource-limited settings.

Inactivation of Ebola virus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in platelet concentrates and plasma by ultraviolet C light and methylene blue plus visible light, respectively

Markus Eickmann, 1 , † Ute Gravemann, 2 , † Wiebke Handke, 2 Frank Tolksdorf, 3 Stefan Reichenberg, 3 Thomas H. Müller, 2 and Axel Seltsam 2Author informationArticle notesCopyright and License informationDisclaimerThis article has been cited by other articles in PMC.Go to:



Ebola virus (EBOV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS‐CoV) have been identified as potential threats to blood safety. This study investigated the efficacy of the THERAFLEX UV‐Platelets and THERAFLEX MB‐Plasma pathogen inactivation systems to inactivate EBOV and MERS‐CoV in platelet concentrates (PCs) and plasma, respectively.


PCs and plasma were spiked with high titers of cell culture–derived EBOV and MERS‐CoV, treated with various light doses of ultraviolet C (UVC; THERAFLEX UV‐Platelets) or methylene blue (MB) plus visible light (MB/light; THERAFLEX MB‐Plasma), and assessed for residual viral infectivity.


UVC reduced EBOV (≥4.5 log) and MERS‐CoV (≥3.7 log) infectivity in PCs to the limit of detection, and MB/light decreased EBOV (≥4.6 log) and MERS‐CoV (≥3.3 log) titers in plasma to nondetectable levels.


Both THERAFLEX UV‐Platelets (UVC) and THERAFLEX MB‐Plasma (MB/light) effectively reduce EBOV and MERS‐CoV infectivity in platelets and plasma, respectively.

Viral Inactivation of Human Osteochondral Grafts with Methylene Blue and Light

Donna M. Squillace,1Zhixing Zhao,1Gazell M. Call,1Jizong Gao,1 and Jian Q. Yao2Author informationCopyright and License informationDisclaimerThis article has been cited by other articles in PMC.Go to:



Cartilage injury is one of the most common disorders of synovial joints. Fresh osteochondral allografts are becoming a standard treatment; however, they are supply constrained with a potential risk of disease transmission. There are no known virucidal processes available for osteochondral allografts and most methods presently available are detrimental to cartilage. Methylene blue light treatment has been shown to be successful in the literature for viral inactivation of fresh frozen plasma. The purpose of this study was to determine the capacity of methylene blue light treatment to inactivate a panel of clinically relevant viruses inoculated onto osteochondral allografts.


Osteochondral grafts recovered from human cadaveric knees were inoculated with one of the following viruses: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), porcine parvovirus (PPV), and pseudorabies virus (PrV). The samples were processed through a methylene blue light treatment, which consisted of an initial soak in nonilluminated circulating methylene blue at ambient temperature, followed by light exposure with circulating methylene blue at cool temperatures. The final titer was compared with the recovery control for the viral log reduction.


HIV-1, BVDV, and PrV were reduced to nondetectable levels while HAV and PPV were reduced by 3.1 and 5.6 logs, respectively.


The methylene blue light treatment was effective in reducing (a) enveloped DNA and RNA viruses to nondetectable levels and (b) nonenveloped DNA and RNA viruses of inoculated human osteochondral grafts by 3.1 to 5.6 logs. This study demonstrates the first practical method for significantly reducing viral load in osteochondral implants.

Hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus RNA degradation by methylene blue/light treatment of human plasma

K Müller-Breitkreutz 1H MohrAffiliations expand


Treatment of human plasma with methylene blue in combination with visible light (MB/light) inactivates several bloodborne viruses such as retro viruses and herpes viruses. The viral nucleic acid is thought to be a critical target for the inactivation procedure. We investigated the effects of photodynamic treatment on the RNA of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) using Amplicor reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), which detects and quantifies a small fragment of the viral RNA. The detectable HCV RNA load (5-nontranslated region) in infected human plasma declined by 94-97 % within 10 min of illumination in small-scale experiments (1-2 ml vol.). Since the same effect was observed in both anti-HCV positive and negative (“window”) samples, it can be concluded that HCV antibodies do not influence virus inactivation by photodynamic treatment. The effect of treatment on RT-PCR signals of HIV-1, which is known to be inactivated rapidly by MB/light treatment, was examined. Plasma was infected with HIV-1 and subjected to RT-PCR, which detected a part of the gag gene. The extent and kinetics of PCR signal reduction induced by MB/light treatment were similar to those observed for HCV. Experiments at production scale where single plasma units (300 ml) were infected with HCV showed reduction rates of PCR signals consistent with those measured in the small-scale experiments. The data support the view that MB/light treatment affects the viral nucleic acids and suggest that HCV is susceptible to the procedure.

Inactivation of dengue virus by methylene blue/narrow bandwidth light system

Qing HuangWei-Ling Fu,*Bing ChenJun-Fu HuangXue Zhang, and Qiang XueAuthor informationArticle notesCopyright and License informationDisclaimerThis article has been cited by other articles in PMC.Go to:


Peracetic acid was one of the most commonly used disinfectants on solid surfaces in hospitals or public places. However, peracetic acid is an environmental toxin. Therefore, safer, alternative disinfectants or disinfectant systems should be developed. Because photodynamic virus inactivation with methylene blue (MB)/light system has proven effective in blood banking, MB was selected as a photosensitizing agent, dengue virus as a model virus for enveloped RNA viruses, and an in-house fabricated narrow bandwidth light system overlapping the absorption spectrum of MB as the light source. Dengue virus was mixed with different concentrations of MB, and illuminated by the narrow bandwidth light system under different illumination distances and times. The amount of dengue virus remaining was evaluated by plaque forming assays. Results showed that the concentration of MB working solution, illumination intensity of light source, illumination distance and time were four key factors affecting efficiency of virus inactivation using the MB/narrow bandwidth light system. Dengue virus could be completely inactivated at 2.5 m in 5 min when MB ⩾ 1.0 μg/ml. However, when the distance reached 3.0 m, only greater concentrations of MB (2.0 μg/ml) could completely inactivate virus in a reasonably short time (20 min), and smaller concentrations of MB (1.0 μg/ml) could only completely inactivate virus using longer times (25 min). The results of this virus inactivation model indicate that our MB/narrow bandwidth light system provides a powerful, easy way to inactivate dengue viruses.


Marc Henry1*, Mireille Summa2, Louis Patrick3, Laurent Schwartz4

1 Université de Strasbourg, Chimie Moléculaire du Solide, Institut Le Bel, Strasbourg.
2 Ceremade, Université Paris Dauphine
3 Association Espoir Métabolique
4 Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France.


We report the case of a cohort of 2500 French patients treated among others with methylene blue for cancer care. During the COVID-19 epidemics none of them developed influenza-like illness. Albeit this lack of infection might be by chance alone, it is possible that methylene blue might have a preventive effect for COVID-19 infection. This is in line with the antiviral activity of Chloroquine, a Methylene blue derivative.

Both Chloroquine and Methylene blue have strong antiviral and anti- inflammatory properties probably linked to the change in intracellular pH and redox state.

Methylene blue photochemical treatment as a reliable SARS-CoV-2 plasma virus inactivation method for blood safety and convalescent plasma therapy for the COVID-19 outbreak

Changzhong Jin, Bin Yu, Jie Zhang, Hao Wu, Xipeng Zhou, Hangping Yao, Fumin Liu, Xiangyun Lu, Linfang Cheng, Miao Jiang, Nanping Wu


With the outbreak of unknown pneumonia in Wuhan, China in December 2019, a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) attracted worldwide attention. Although coronaviruses typically infect the upper or lower respiratory tract, discovery of the virus in plasma is common. Therefore, the risk of transmitting coronavirus through transfusion of blood products remains. As more asymptomatic infections are found in COVID-19 cases, blood safety is shown to be particularly important, especially in endemic areas.

Study Design and Methods

BX-1, an ‘AIDS treatment instrument’ based on methylene blue (MB) photochemical technology, developed by Boxin (Beijing) Biotechnology Development LTD, has proven that inactivation of lipid-enveloped viruses such as HIV-1 in plasma has high efficiency, without damage to other components in the plasma, and proved safe and reliable in clinical trials of HIV treatment. In order to confirm the inactivation effect of BX-1 in SARS-CoV-2, we used the SARS-CoV-2 virus strain isolated from Zhejiang University for plasma virus inactivation studies.

Results and Conclusion

BX-1 can effectively eliminate SARS-CoV-2 within 2 mins, and the virus titer decline can reach 4.5 log10 TCID50/mL. Faced with the expanding epidemic, BX-1 is safe for blood transfusion and plasma transfusion therapy in recovery patients, and the inactivated vaccine preparation has great potential for treatment in the current outbreak.

Methylene blue inhibits replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro

Mathieu Gendrot 1Julien Andreani 2Isabelle Duflot 2Manon Boxberger 2Marion Le Bideau 2Joel Mosnier 3Priscilla Jardot 2Isabelle Fonta 3Clara Rolland 2Hervé Bogreau 3Sébastien Hutter 2Bernard La Scola 4Bruno Pradines 5Affiliations expand

Free PMC article


In December 2019, a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan, China. Currently there is no antiviral treatment recommended against SARS-CoV-2. Identifying effective antiviral drugs is urgently required. Methylene blue has already demonstrated in vitro antiviral activity in photodynamic therapy as well as antibacterial, antifungal and antiparasitic activities in non-photodynamic assays. In this study. non-photoactivated methylene blue showed in vitro activity at very low micromolar range with an EC50 (median effective concentration) of 0.30 ± 0.03 μM and an EC90 (90% effective concentration) of 0.75 ± 0.21 μM at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.25 against SARS-CoV-2 (strain IHUMI-3). The EC50 and EC90 values for methylene blue are lower than those obtained for hydroxychloroquine (1.5 μM and 3.0 μM) and azithromycin (20.1 μM and 41.9 μM). The ratios Cmax/EC50 and Cmax/EC90 in blood for methylene blue were estimated at 10.1 and 4.0, respectively, following oral administration and 33.3 and 13.3 following intravenous administration. Methylene blue EC50 and EC90 values are consistent with concentrations observed in human blood. We propose that methylene blue is a promising drug for treatment of COVID-19. In vivo evaluation in animal experimental models is now required to confirm its antiviral effects on SARS-CoV-2. The potential interest of methylene blue to treat COVID-19 needs to be confirmed by prospective comparative clinical studies.

The Role of Methemoglobin and Carboxyhemoglobin in COVID-19: A Review

by Felix Scholkmann 1,2,*,Tanja Restin 2,Marco Ferrari 3 andValentina Quaresima 31Biomedical Optics Research Laboratory, Department of Neonatology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland2Newborn Research Zurich, Department of Neonatology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland3Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences, University of L’Aquila, 67100 L’Aquila, Italy*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.J. Clin. Med.202110(1), 50;


Following the outbreak of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) associated with pneumonia in China (Corona Virus Disease 2019, COVID-19) at the end of 2019, the world is currently facing a global pandemic of infections with SARS-CoV-2 and cases of COVID-19. Since severely ill patients often show elevated methemoglobin (MetHb) and carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) concentrations in their blood as a marker of disease severity, we aimed to summarize the currently available published study results (case reports and cross-sectional studies) on MetHb and COHb concentrations in the blood of COVID-19 patients. To this end, a systematic literature research was performed. For the case of MetHb, seven publications were identified (five case reports and two cross-sectional studies), and for the case of COHb, three studies were found (two cross-sectional studies and one case report). The findings reported in the publications show that an increase in MetHb and COHb can happen in COVID-19 patients, especially in critically ill ones, and that MetHb and COHb can increase to dangerously high levels during the course of the disease in some patients. The medications given to the patient and the patient’s glucose-6-phospate dehydrogenase (G6PD) status seem to be important factors determining the severity of the methemoglobinemia and carboxyhemoglobinemia. Therefore, G6PD status should be determined before medications such as hydroxychloroquine are administered. In conclusion, MetHb and COHb can be elevated in COVID-19 patients and should be checked routinely in order to provide adequate medical treatment as well as to avoid misinterpretation of fingertip pulse oximetry readings, which can be inaccurate and unreliable in case of elevated MetHb and COHb levels in the blood.

Application of methylene blue -vitamin C –N-acetyl cysteine for treatment of critically ill COVID-19 patients, report of a phase-I clinical trial

Author links open overlay panelDaryoush HamidiAlamdariaAhmad BagheriMoghaddambShahramAminicMohammad RezaKeramatidAzam MoradiZarmehrieAida HamidiAlamdarifMohammadaminDamsazfHamedBanpourdAmirYarahmadigGeorgeKoliakosh


COVID-19 is a global catastrophic event that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome. The mechanism of the disease remains unclear, and hypoxia is one of the main complications. There is no currently approved protocol for treatment. The microbial threat as induced by COVID-19 causes the activation of macrophages to produce a huge amount of inflammatory molecules and nitric oxide (NO). Activation of macrophages population into a pro-inflammatory phenotype induces a self-reinforcing cycle. Oxidative stress and NO contribute to this cycle, establishing a cascade inflammatory state that can kill the patient. Interrupting this vicious cycle by a simple remedy may save critical patients’ lives. Nitrite, nitrate (the metabolites of NO), methemoglobin, and prooxidant-antioxidant-balance levels were measured in 25 ICU COVID-19 patients and 25 healthy individuals. As the last therapeutic option, five patients were administered methylene blue-vitamin C–N-acetyl Cysteine (MCN). Nitrite, nitrate, methemoglobin, and oxidative stress were significantly increased in patients in comparison to healthy individuals. Four of the five patients responded well to treatment. In conclusion, NO, methemoglobin and oxidative stress may play a central role in the pathogenesis of critical COVID-19 disease. MCN treatment seems to increase the survival rate of these patients. Considering the vicious cycle of macrophage activation leading to deadly NO, oxidative stress, and cytokine cascade syndrome; the therapeutic effect of MCN seems to be reasonable. Accordingly, a wider clinical trial has been designed. It should be noted that the protocol is using the low-cost drugs which the FDA approved for other diseases.

The effect of methylene blue treatment on aspiration pneumonia

Mehmet Kanter 1Sevtap Hekimoglu Sahin 2Umit Nusret Basaran 3Suleyman Ayvaz 3Burhan Aksu 3Mustafa Erboga 4Alkin Colak 2Affiliations expand


Background: The study aimed to examine whether methylene blue (MB) prevents different pulmonary aspiration materials-induced lung injury in rats.

Methods: The experiments were designed in 60 Sprague-Dawley rats, ranging in weight from 250-300 g, randomly allotted into one of six groups (n = 10): saline control, Biosorb Energy Plus (BIO), hydrochloric acid (HCl), saline + MB treated, BIO + MB treated, and HCl + MB treated. Saline, BIO, and HCl were injected into the lungs in a volume of 2 mL/kg. After surgical procedure, MB was administered intraperitoneally for 7 days at a daily dose of 2 mg/kg per day. Seven days later, rats were killed, and both lungs in all groups were examined biochemically and histopathologically.

Results: Our findings show that MB inhibits the inflammatory response reducing significantly (P < 0.05) peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration, alveolar septal infiltration, alveolar edema, alveolar exudate, alveolar histiocytes, interstitial fibrosis, granuloma, and necrosis formation in different pulmonary aspiration models. Pulmonary aspiration significantly increased the tissue hydroxyproline content, malondialdehyde levels, and decreased (P < 0.05) the antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) activities. MB treatment significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the elevated tissue hydroxyproline content and malondialdehyde levels and prevented the inhibition of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase (P < 0.05) enzymes in the tissues. Furthermore, there is a significant reduction in the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, and arise in the expression of surfactant protein D in lung tissue of different pulmonary aspiration models with MB therapy.

Conclusions: MB treatment might be beneficial in lung injury and therefore shows potential for clinical use.

The post Methylene Blue: A Scientific Breakthrough for COVID-19? appeared first on ENDALLDISEASE.