(Zerohedge) A fourth cancer-causing compound was found in widely prescribed blood pressure pills, according to a new report by Bloomberg. The solvent dimethylformamide was discovered in the drug valsartan, manufactured by several companies including Novartis, by an online pharmacy, Valisure.
Medical marijuana is a touchy subject and many people are still on the fence about whether it’s a legitimate medicine and should be legalized. If you’re one of those people who remain unconvinced, perhaps this new study will change your mind.
In a survey of 450 adults who identified as current cannabis users, 78% said they used cannabis to treat a medical or health condition. Nearly half of those users – 42% – said they were able to give up pharmaceutical drugs because cannabis did the trick.
Another 38% of current cannabis users reported they were able to cut back on their use of pharmaceuticals because of cannabis.
Highly addictive opioids were among the pharmaceuticals that cannabis users were able to quit or reduce. Some 26% of users said they were able to wean themselves off opioids with the help of cannabis. 
In the study, people reported using cannabis for a variety of medical or health conditions, including chronic pain, depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), menstrual cramps, and headaches. Some even used cannabis to alleviate side effects from chemotherapy and to ease HIV/AIDS-related nausea. 
Respondents said they trusted medical marijuana more than pharmaceuticals and said cannabis was more effective and had fewer side effects. They also said that, in many cases, pot was more available and cost-effective than pharmaceuticals.
Daniel Kruger, a study co-author, said: 
“People are not only self-medicating, but they’re self un-medicating.”
Nearly 30% of current pot users said their doctor didn’t know they were using medical cannabis. 
The survey shed some light on the mindset of medical marijuana users, which the authors said needed to be explored to help shape future marijuana policy.
The authors of the study wrote:
“Given the state of the science of medical cannabis, even basic information about users’ attitudes and behaviors would be helpful.”
Current cannabis policy consists of a patchwork of laws across the U.S. There are already so many questions surrounding medical cannabis, and those questions will only increase in number and complexity as more states legalize marijuana. Every year, lawmakers try to legalize cannabis at the federal level. So far, no luck. It’s a shame because federal legalization would eliminate the need for patients to navigate often confusing state laws.
One thing is obvious to the authors: the federal government is not handling the issue of marijuana properly. Times have changed, but many lawmakers are stuck in the 1980’s, pleading alongside Nancy Reagan for people to “just say no.”
Kruger said in a statement:
“Given the growing use of cannabis for medicinal purposes and the widespread use for recreational purposes despite criminalization, the current public health framework focusing primarily on cannabis abstinence appears obsolete.”
Kruger said that the federal government still treats cannabis use like “an abstinence-based program, like sex, and we know that doesn’t work.”
It’s not good that so many cannabis users are unwilling to inform their doctor that they use cannabis, but it’s easy to understand why they don’t. There is still a stigma attached to cannabis use. Perhaps if more people were open about their cannabis use and how much it has helped them, their honesty would slowly whittle away that stigma.
“It’s not wild to say, ‘here’s this plant that people have used medicinally for 5,000 years’ … why are we not taking it seriously?”
Research shows that fewer opioid prescriptions are written in states that have access to legal marijuana. Could there be a connection between decreased opioid use and marijuana legalization? 
The report, released in JAMA Internal Medicine, suggests that some people turn to cannabis as a way to treat their pain, consequently avoiding more dangerous pharmaceutical drugs as a result.
Many people become addicted to opioid painkillers when they are prescribed the drugs to treat legitimate pain. The authors of the study say that people who avoid that first prescription are less likely to become addicted to opiates.
W. David Bradford, a professor of public policy at the University of Georgia, said:
“We do know that cannabis is much less risky than opiates, as far as likelihood of dependency.”
He added that “certainly there’s no mortality risk.”
No one has ever died from a marijuana overdose (no one!).
Based on the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine’s own assessment that marijuana is useful in treating various types of pain, Bradford and 3 colleagues set out to determine whether people with easy access to medical marijuana are less likely to receive prescription opioids.
The answer is, yes.
The researchers pored over data from Medicare, which mostly covers people over the age of 65. They discovered a 14% reduction in opioid prescriptions in states that have medical marijuana laws. An estimated 3.7 million fewer daily doses of opiates are prescribed in states with medical marijuana dispensaries, the authors said.
States that allowed residents to grow their own medicinal marijuana saw an estimated 1.8 million fewer opioids dispensed each day. From 2010 to 2015, Medicare recipients received approximately 23 million daily doses of the analgesics.
During that same period, opioid use was skyrocketing, so the numbers reflect a slowing of the increase, rather than an actual decline in opioid use in these states, according to Bradford.
Some Study Limitations
The study merely shows a correlation and can’t prove that marijuana use led to a reduction in opioid prescriptions. What’s more, the authors focused on data revolving around a specific older-age group (65 and older), so that leaves out focus on similar correlations revolving around other age groups. Still, the evidence is compelling, and there’s plenty of it.
Further Evidence Shows Fewer Opioid Scripts Where Marijuana is Legal
A study published in September, 2016 showed that people were slightly less likely to test positive for opioids after a state legalized medical marijuana. Furthermore, the results of a small survey released in 2017 revealed that 63% of patients reported being able to replace their pharmaceuticals with marijuana – including opioids, sedatives, and antidepressants – when given legal access. Is the swap a perfect solution? Of course not, but it can certainly be an upgrade for many.
If cannabis wasn’t an effective pain reliever, drug companies wouldn’t be trying to harness its power or fight against legalization.
Of Course Marijuana isn’t a Perfect Solution. Duh – Downsides do Exist
That’s not to say that cannabis is a cure-all that suits everybody. In one study, Dr. Mark Olfson, a professor of psychiatry and epidemiology at Columbia University, found that pot users were 6 times more likely than non-users to abuse opioids. Of course this makes sense when considering the fact that those willing to use ANY drug are by default more likely to use even harder drugs than completely non-users – even if that chance is minimal for a large portion of drug users.
“A young person using marijuana is maybe putting him – or herself at increased risk. On the other hand, there may be a role – and there likely is a role – for medical marijuana in reducing the use of prescribed opioids for the management of pain.”
Olfson said studies that follow individuals to see whether marijuana is really a suitable replacement for opiates are needed. That’s easier said than done, however, because the federal government still considers marijuana a dangerous Schedule I drug and keeps tight reins on cannabis research. 
“That does make this a difficult area to study, and that’s unfortunate because we have a large problem with the opioid epidemic. And at the same time, with an aging population, we have lots of people who have pain conditions and who will benefit from appropriate management.”
Bradford chimed in, saying:
“In this time when we are so concerned – rightly so – about opiate misuse and abuse and the mortality that’s occurring, we need to be clear-eyed and use evidence to drive our policies.
If you’re interested in giving people options for pain management that don’t bring the particular risks that opiates do, states should contemplate turning on dispensary-based cannabis policies.” 
Face It – Most People Think Marijuana Should be Legalized
And while neither Medicare nor Medicaid reimburses patients for what they spend on medical marijuana, the amount of money spent on the drugs in legal states fell by about 8%, so the costs of both treatments might be comparable.
“I did a back-of-the-envelope calculation that suggested that a daily pain management dose of hydrocodone would be about $10 out of pocket in the U.S.”
Medicare Part D would cover most of that, but a daily pain management dose of cannabis was only about $6 last year, and is likely lower now.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) confirms the popular Johnson & Johnson (J&J) diabetes drug Invokana (Invokamet, Invokamet XR) increases the risk of foot and leg amputations in people with Type 2 diabetes. 
The results of 2 clinical trials showed leg and foot amputations occurred about twice as often in patients taking Invokana (generic name: canagliflozin) as those given a placebo, according to an announcement on the FDA’s website. 
The nation’s health watchdog says it is requiring that new warnings, including its most prominent Boxed Warning, be added to the Invokana label.
One of the clinical trials indicated that over the course of a year, the risk of amputation in Invokana patients was about 9.5 out of 1,000, compared with 2.8 out of 1,000 for those in the placebo group.
In the second clinical trial, the results showed the risk of amputation was equivalent to 7.5 out of every 1,000 patients treated with Invokana, compared with 4.2 out of every 1,000 patients given a placebo.
The most common amputations involved the toe and middle of the foot; however, amputations involving the leg, below and above the knee, also occurred.
People taking Invokana are being urged by the FDA to contact their healthcare professional immediately if they experience new pain or tenderness, sores or ulcers, or infections in their legs or feet. However, patients should not stop taking the medication without first discussing it with their healthcare provider. (I feel like I’m in a commercial.) 
The FDA says that before prescribing Invokana for a patient with Type 2 diabetes, healthcare providers should take into account whether an individual has a history of prior amputation, or suffers from peripheral vascular disease, neuropathy, and diabetic foot ulcers, as these may increase the risk of amputation even more.
Foot and leg amputations are common complications of Type 2 diabetes. This is because many people with diabetes have blood vessel disease, which results in restricted blood flow to the lower extremities, along with nerve disease (neuropathy), which reduces sensation in the feet. 
The combination of problems often leads to sores and ulcers that the individual may not be able to feel. When a wound goes unnoticed, and thus goes untreated, it can lead to infections that are sometimes impossible to treat.
Amputation is not an unavoidable complication, fortunately. Routine foot care can prevent the need for such drastic measures.
Invokana belongs to a class of Type 2 diabetes drugs, known as SGLT-2 inhibitors, which help rid the body of excess blood sugar through urination. Other popular SGLT-2 inhibitors include Eli Lilly and Co’s Jardiance and AstraZeneca Plc’s Farxiga.
Sometimes the pharmaceutical drugs intended to keep blood sugar low and prevent devastating side effects and complications wind up doing more harm than good.
Additionally, in 2016, the FDA issued warnings for diabetes medications containing saxagliptin and alogliptin, as the drugs were shown to increase the risk of heart failure, particularly in people who already have heart or kidney disease.