ADVENTURES IN CAPITALISM — During every credit cycle, there is one national lender that all other lenders try to emulate. This is because a combination of rapid asset growth and elevated net interest margins leads to rapid earnings growth and share price appreciation. Unfortunately, in order to do that, you have to make a lot of risky loans and pretend they’re totally safe. Remember Countrywide Financial? They were the ones who’d lend to you no matter what; no income, no job, no assets — you’re approved!!! Anything to show growth. Everyone in the financial industry emulated them because they were growing so fast. Besides, when you have a fixed cost structure, you cannot exactly stand still and let others steal your market share. That brings me to what may be this cycle’s Countrywide Financial, Bank OZK (OZK – USA), formerly known as Bank of the Ozarks.
It was a bit of a head scratcher when I first heard of these guys a few years back; why were a bunch of guys in Little Rock, Arkansas so focused on funding risky Miami condo developments? Aren’t there plenty of local banks who are perfectly willing to lose globs of money at this game?
I reached out to a friend in hard money lending for a perspective, “I wouldn’t touch the crap they’re lending on at twice the interest rate.” Interesting …
I filed this all away in my head and forgot about Bank OZK until my hard money lending friend sent me this article in July. “Aggressive” and “innovative” lenders always blow up — especially when rates increase. If I shorted stocks, this would be at the top of my list. […]
THE UNZ REVIEW — In our modern era, there are surely few organizations that so terrify powerful Americans as the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) of B’nai B’rith, a central organ of the organized Jewish community.
Mel Gibson had long been one of the most popular stars in Hollywood and his 2004 film The Passion of the Christ became among the most profitable in world history, yet the ADL and its allies destroyed his career, and he eventually donated millions of dollars to Jewish groups in desperate hopes of regaining some of his public standing. When the ADL criticized a cartoon that had appeared in one of his newspapers, media titan Rupert Murdoch provided his personal apology to that organization, and the editors of The Economistquickly retracted a different cartoon once it came under ADL fire. Billionaire Tom Perkins, a famed Silicon Valley venture capitalist, was forced to issue a heartfelt apology after coming under ADL criticism for his choice of words in a Wall Street Journal column. These were all proud, powerful individuals, and they must have deeply resented being forced to seek such abject public forgiveness, but they did so nonetheless. The total list of ADL supplicants over the years is a very long one.
Given the fearsome reputation of the ADL and its notorious hair-trigger activists, there was a widespread belief that my small webzine would be completely annihilated when I first launched my recent series of controversial articles in early June by praising the works of historian David Irving, a figure long demonized by the ADL. Yet absolutely nothing happened. […]
The Rothschild family fortune exploded via dealings and financial alliances with the Landgraves of Hesse in Frankfurt, Germany. Out of Frankfurt, Mayer Amschel Rothschild ran the affairs of Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse, the wealthiest man in Europe, and his successor, Elector Wilhelm I, who, like Mayer, had also been born in 1743.
In the course of their operations, Mayer quickly moved into the profitable business of war and mercenaries. He expanded his realm of influence to Great Britain by arranging for King George III to hire 16,800 sturdy young Hessian soldiers from the Landgraves. This greatly expanded the Hesse Landgrave’s (and Rothschild) fortune.
The French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars from 1789 to 1815 were open-ended profit opportunities for the House of Rothschild.
In the preface of the book “The Rothschilds,” author Frederic Morton writes, “For the last 150 years, the history of the House of Rothschild has been to an amazing degree the backstage history of Western Europe. … Because of their success in making loans not to individuals but to nations, they reaped huge profits. … Someone once said that the wealth of Rothschild consists of the bankruptcy of nations.”
On July 8, 1937, The New York Times quoted Prof. Wilhelm, a German historian, who said, “The Rothschilds introduced the rule of money into European politics. The Rothschilds were the servants of money who undertook the reconstruct the world as an image of money and its functions.”
In “The Empire of the City,” author E.C. Knuth wrote, “The fact that the House of Rothschild made its money in the great crashes of history and the great wars of history, the very periods when others lost their money, is beyond question.”
Hearst’s Chicago Evening American commented on Dec. 3, 1923, that “the Rothschilds can start or prevent wars. Their word could make or break empires.”
The Kaiser’s reckless chancellor, Bethmann-Hollweg, who actually precipitated World War I, was a member of the Frankfurt banking family Bethmann and was a cousin of the Rothschilds.
It was determined early on that the family Frankist model would be incorporated. The result was intermarriage and careful strategic selection in marital unions outside the family.
This family union concept extended to the agents that the family utilized in its business model. Agents and front men were carefully but dubiously masked. The principle Rothschild dictate: “In combat, the decisive weapon is the one your opponent does not know about.”
It is important to note that Rothschild agents/made men were often Christian converts from Judiasm (crypto-Jewish) — again straight out of the Sabbatean Frankist handbook. They also tended to come from the hotbeds of Frankism: Rhineland Palatinate (eg. Karl Marx), Hesse and northern Baden German States (eg. John Jacob Astor, parents of Frederick Lindemann).
By sheer coinkydink, Donald Trump’s paternal ancestry is traceable to Bobenheim am Berg, a village in the Palatinate, Germany. Johann Trump, born in Bobenheim in 1789, moved to the nearby village of Kallstadt, where Friedrich Trump, the grandfather of Donald Trump, was born in 1869. For “some odd reason,” this German heritage was long concealed by Donald Trump’s father, Fred Trump (1905–1999), who, until the age of 10, had grown up in a mainly German-speaking environment. Fred had spun the yarn that he was of Swedish ancestry.Crypto much? This similar to John Kerry claiming his Vienna-Brno Jewish family was Irish.
When Mayer died in 1812, he left an enormous fortune to his five sons. Two, James out of Paris, and Nathan out of London left large progeny.
The eldest, Amschel, was placed in charge of the Frankfurt bank. Today five of Germany’s ten largest banks are headquartered in that city. Mayer’s second-eldest son, Salomon, was sent to Vienna, where he soon took over the banking monopoly formerly shared among five Jewish families: Arnstein, Eskeles, Geymuller, Stein and Sina. The third-eldest son, Nathan, founded the London branch in 1808.
Carl, the fourth son, went to Naples, where he became head of the subversive Masonic occult network the Alta Vendita.
The youngest son, James, founded the French branch of the House of Rothschild in Paris. The Jewish Encyclopedia (1909 edition) notes that in the year 1848, the Paris House of Rothschild was reckoned to be worth 600 million francs. By comparison, the holdings of all other Paris bankers combined totaled 352 million francs.
Deeper-dive research might examine which German Sabbattean Frankists the Rothchild brothers took with them to the new branches. They also used Frankist networks already in place throughout Europe.
“Fortuitous trading” on the London Stock Exchange after Waterloo gave Nathaniel Mayer Rothschild a sizable portion of the Consols, which formed the bulk of the deposits of the Bank of England.
In the book “The Merchant Bankers,” author Joseph Wechsberg noted, “There is the Sun Alliance life insurance company, most aristocratic of all insurance companies, founded by Nathan Rothschild in 1824; Brinco, the British Newfoundland Corp., founded by the British and French Rothschilds in 1952; the Anglo-American Corp.; Bowater, Rio Tinto and others.”
In 1886, Andrew Carnegie wrote that “six or seven men can plunge the nation into war without consulting Parliament at all.”
Vincent Vickers, a director of the Bank of England from 1910 to 1919, blamed the City of London for the wars of the world. [“Economic Tribulation” (1940) cited in Knuth, “The Empire of the City” (1943) p. 60]
Sun Alliance Assurance was founded in 1824 by Nathan Mayer Rothschild along with Sir Alex Baring, Samuel Gurney and Sir Moses Montefiore. It is from this entity that a maze of interlocking financial and familial interests can be found in Britain and internationally. This Rothschild-Montefiore-Goldsmids-Mocatta-Sassoon clan is referred to in England as the “cousinhood.”
It is generally believe that early Rothschild operations in America were handled by August Belmont and their secret representative, George Peabody of London. Par for the course, financial panics were used to provide “lender of last resort” plots and schemes. J. Pierpont Morgan & Company became the successor firm of the Peabody operation after 1864.
In “Twenty- Eight Years on Wall Street” (p. 157), author Henry Clews wrote, “The Panic of 1837 was aggravated by the Bank of England when it in one day threw out all the paper connected with the United States.”
By refusing to credit American notes and stocks, the Bank of England created financial panic among the holders of that paper. The panic enabled Rothschild agents Peabody and Belmont to reap a fortune in buying up depreciated stocks during the panic.
In “Our Crowd,” Bermingham wrote, “In the Panic of 1837, Belmont was able to perform a service which he would repeat in subsequent panics, thanks to the hugeness of the Rothschild reservoir of capital, to start out in America operating his own Federal Reserve System.”
After 1837, August Belmont (aka Schonberg, a Jewish Frankist family from Frankfurt) was publicly advertised in the financial press as the American representative of the Rothschilds. When Belmont participated in a financial operation, everyone knew that the Rothschilds were involved. When Belmont took no part, and the transaction was handled by J. P. Morgan & Co. or by Kuhn, Loeb Co. and everyone “knew” that the Rothschilds were not involved. Belmont was a major schemer in the lead up to and during the American Civil War, a subject for another post.
George Peabody had established his business in England through his connection with Brown Bros, (now Brown Bros. Harriman and Brown, Shipley). He had become an unidentified agent for Lord Rothschild as early as 1835.
By 1861, George Peabody had become the largest trader of American securities in the world. To put pressure on the Lincoln government, he began dumping securities on the open market to drive prices down. At the same time, J.P. Morgan, allied with Morris Ketchum, was depleting the U.S. gold supply by shipping it to England. He ran the price from $126 ounce to $171, reaping a good profit and putting even more financial pressure on the Lincoln government. This was one of many financial operations directed by the Rothschilds for their own political and financial goals.
As George Peabody had no son to take over his firm, he took on Junius Morgan as partner. Junius’ son John Pierpont Morgan became known as “the most powerful banker in the world.”
Eucalyptus, an evergreen tree native to Australia, is perhaps best known as a favorite food for koalas. In Australia, the fast-growing trees may reach massive heights of 300 feet with a hefty circumference of more than 24 feet.1 Other varieties take the form of short, bushy plants, all of them with a characteristic pungent aroma.
Eucalypti are also known as gum trees or stringybark trees, and in addition to being a staple food for koalas, are prized for use as fuel and timber, and are valued for medicinal uses in Australia and around the globe. In the U.S., eucalyptus plants are only suitable for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Hardiness Zones 8 to 11 — if you plan on planting it outside.
However, this plant grows well in containers, which means even if you live in a cooler climate, you can have your own eucalyptus tree as long as you bring it indoors for the winter. Some people even prefer to grow eucalyptus as an indoor plant, and because it’s so fast-growing, you can also use it as an annual.
Why Grow Eucalyptus?
Eucalyptus has a wonderful menthol-like scent that’s released from the foliage when it’s rubbed. Simply cutting and drying the leaves, then placing them in a bowl in your home will create a natural, fresh-smelling potpourri. Eucalyptus is also a favorite among crafters, with its decorative foliage creating a perfect addition to centerpieces and arrangements.
Eucalyptus branches are easily dried by hanging them upside down in bunches. The leaves are “ready” when they’re leathery or crispy feeling. You can even preserve them by immersing them in a jar with about 3 inches of a glycerin and water solution. For the solution, mix one part glycerin with two parts boiling water. The Spruce suggests:2
“Keep the jar in a cool, dark place and inspect the plants weekly. Add more liquid as needed to keep it at the optimum level. It may take anywhere between one and eight weeks for all the leaves to change color. When they have, the process is complete. Remove the eucalyptus branches, pat them dry with a paper towel, and hang them upside down for two to three days before using.”
The leaves, bark and roots of eucalyptus also contain medicinal eucalyptus oil, which is widely used as an antiseptic, in oral care products and cosmetics, in flavorings and even in industrial solvents.
Eucalyptus Has Medicinal Properties
You may be interested to know that eucalyptus is a common plant used in complementary medicine, in part because it has strong antimicrobial properties. For instance, eucalyptus leaf extract has antibacterial effects against pathogens commonly involved in respiratory tract infections.3
It may even work synergistically with conventional antibiotics to fight multidrug-resistant bacteria.4 In a study published in the Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (APJTB), researchers discovered that essential oil extracted from eucalyptus globulus leaves is particularly effective against common strains of bacteria, such as E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus.5
Herbal infusions of eucalyptus can be used as a chest rub, skin antiseptic or as a steam inhalation. The vapor from eucalyptus oil is often recommended for use as a decongestant for colds and bronchitis. Eucalyptus oil can also be added to a diffuser for air freshening or congestion relief. It’s also an effective insect repellant.
Eucalyptus oil can also be added to bathwater and is said to ease pain6 and inflammation. The essential oil extract is also immune boosting, with researchers suggesting it could “… drive development of a possible new family of immunoregulatory agents, useful as adjuvant in immunosuppressive pathologies, in infectious disease and after tumor chemotherapy.”7
When added to oral care products, eucalyptus may be effective against bacteria that contribute to tooth decay. One study even looked into the effects of eucalyptus extract chewing gum, which was found to promote periodontal health and significantly reduce plaque accumulation and other measures of dental health.8
Different Eucalyptus Varieties
Eucalyptus comes in hundreds of different varieties. Some grow into towering trees when mature while others can be maintained as bushy shrubs. If you have a eucalyptus plant, be generous with pruning and cutting it back, as it will help the plant to become fuller rather than tall and leggy (plus, you’ll probably want to make use of all of the cuttings).
The first step to planting is to choose the best variety for your needs. Below are some eucalyptus varieties that vary based on their leaf size and shape, primary uses and preferred growing habits:
Eucalyptus gunnii — “Silver drop” produces blue-gray leaves when young and silver-green leaves when mature.
This variety may grow to 80 feet tall and has brown- and cream-colored bark. However, it is popular as an annual, as it will grow about 2 to 3 feet tall and wide.
Eucalyptus globulus — This species (also known as Tasmanian blue gum) is the top choice for creating eucalyptus essential oil and is the ingredient used for various eucalyptus products as well.
Eucalyptus radiate — Also known as “narrow-leaved peppermint,” it is known for its refreshing aroma.
Eucalyptus cinerea (silver dollar) — While this variety can be grown as a tree outdoors in warm climates, it also works well as an annual and can reach up to 8 feet in one season.
It’s also known for its cinnamon-colored, peeling bark.9
Eucalyptus polybractea — Also known as “blue mallee,” it is high in cineole, which is a colorless liquid terpene with an odor similar to camphor.
It has long, narrow willow-like leaves that are blue-green and frosted in color.
Eucalyptus deglupta — ‘Rainbow eucalyptus’ has rainbow colored bark that sheds throughout the year.
It is the only eucalyptus variant that grows in the Northern Hemisphere and is mainly used for decorative and shade purposes.
Tips for Growing Eucalyptus
If you plan to plant eucalyptus outdoors, be aware that these hardy, fast growers are sometimes considered invasive. There’s even speculation that they may release a chemical into the soil that stops competing plants from growing.10 The trees also have exfoliating bark that, while showy and quite impressive, can accumulate on the ground, which might not be desirable in some locations.
They’re also considered to be fire hazards in some locales, as their high oil content makes them prone to burning quickly. Outdoors, eucalyptus will need a sunny spot that’s protected from drafts along with regular watering. When grown in its ideal conditions, eucalyptus will also produce blossoms that are a favorite among bees.11
Many home gardeners will prefer to grow eucalyptus in a container or as a houseplant. Some varieties that thrive in container gardens include lemon-scented gum (Eucalyptus citriodora), argyle-apple (Eucalyptus cinerea), silver-dollar gum (Eucalyptus perriniana) and mountain gum (Eucalyptus dalrympleana).12
You can leave potted eucalypti outdoors in the summer, but be prepared to bring them inside when the weather gets cool, and definitely before the first frost. The plant can be cut back and stored in a cool area (such as a basement) to overwinter. If temperatures are below about 46 degrees F, you only need to water the eucalyptus sparingly.
If you prefer, and your home is warm with access to a bright (preferably south-facing) window, eucalyptus can continue to grow over the winter, with higher temperatures leading to faster growth.13 You’ll need to water it regularly in this case.
Be aware that your eucalyptus plant will probably outgrow its container at some point, so you’ll need to either plant it outdoors at that point or move it to a larger container (do this in the spring). The alternative is to regard eucalyptus as strictly an annual that you start new each season.
You may choose to purchase a eucalyptus plant that’s already established, but it can also be grown quite readily from seed. Sow them shallowly in the spring or late spring into the container in which you plan to keep the plant. Cover the potting mixture with sphagnum moss and keep the seeds in a warm spot (at least 60 degrees F).14
You’ll need to mist the seeds regularly to keep them damp, Once the seedlings have established themselves as young trees, they can be moved outdoors (provided it’s summer).
Is Eucalyptus Poisonous?
If ingested in large enough quantities, eucalyptus is toxic to dogs, cats and horses. If you’re wondering how koalas can eat it, they are the only mammal that can survive on a diet consisting of eucalyptus alone.
While other animals cannot digest eucalyptus leaves, because too much of it can be poisonous, the koala has the advantage of having a specialized caecum, which is a section in the digestive tract containing millions of beneficial bacteria that can break down the eucalyptus leaves safely.15
In humans, it’s advised that you consult your health care practitioner before consuming eucalyptus, as excess consumption can cause digestive problems, such as vomiting, diarrhea and nausea. For instance, while you may enjoy using your plant to make eucalyptus tea,16 you should limit consumption to a maximum of two to three cups daily:
1 cup of water
1/2 teaspoon of dried eucalyptus leaves per cup of water
Raw, organic honey to taste (optional)
Bring the water to a boil.
Place the leaves in the teapot.
Pour the boiling water and let the tea brew for five to 10 minutes.
Add honey to taste (optional).
Serve and enjoy.
When applying eucalyptus oil to your skin, be sure to dilute it with a carrier oil. In general, adults should not take eucalyptus oil orally except under a doctor’s supervision, and this oil mustn’t be given to children, especially those under 2 years old. You may, however, add very diluted eucalyptus oil to a gargle to use as a soothing remedy for sore throat.
How to Use Eucalyptus Leaves in Your Home
If you grow eucalyptus, you’ll probably be very interested in what to do with all of those beautiful leaves and branches. Most simply, snip some stalks from the plant, place them in a vase and use them as a centerpiece or mantle decoration.
You can also add eucalyptus leaves to a bowl or sachet and use them around your home to repel insects or act as an air freshener. You can also boil water and add eucalyptus leaves to the pot. The steam that’s released will add a pleasant aroma to your home.
For congestion relief, you can (carefully to avoid burning) also place a towel loosely over your head to create a tent and inhale the steam. With the many varied uses, from aesthetic to medicinal, and the ease of growing, eucalyptus is one plant you’ll likely find yourself coming back to for years to come.
Squash is a flowering plant in the gourd family. Although you may think of them as vegetables, they are actually fruit. The seeds, blossoms and fruit may all be cooked and eaten.1 Squash are often categorized as summer or winter squash, depending upon the length of time they may be stored, and not their growing season, as both are warm weather crops.
Summer squash grows in a short bush formation and include zucchini, yellow crookneck squash and pattypans. Winter squash usually grow on a vine and generally bear large fruit, which characteristically can be stored for many months if they’re kept dry and well above freezing. Common winter squash includes butternut squash, acorn squash, spaghetti squash and giant pumpkins.
Along with beans and corn, squash is believed to have originated in Mexico and Central America. They are one of the largest groups of foods and the oldest cultivated crop.2
Today, pumpkins and squash are grown worldwide and are popular in many Eastern European countries.3 Winter squash differ from summer squash as the fruit have hard thick skins and seeds. The flesh in winter squash is firmer than summer squash and requires longer cooking time.
Fun Facts About Squash
Roasted seeds of the squash can be used in salads, while the meat of the fruit may be baked, roasted, flattened into patties, fried or used as a base flavoring in soups. The word squash comes from the Narragansett Native American word askutasquash, meaning “eaten raw” or “uncooked.”
Although typical pumpkin pie today is baked in a pie shell, pilgrims made their pumpkin pies by first hollowing out a pumpkin and then filling it with apples, sugar, spices and milk. The stem was then replaced and the entire pumpkin baked.4
An average pumpkin may weigh between 10 and 20 pounds, but the Atlantic Giant variety can weigh up to 600 pounds, providing enough flesh for nearly 300 pies. Historically, in addition to being grown for food, many squash were also used as containers after the hard outer gourd was dried. Several types of squashes are also made into candies in Latin America.
Worldwide, it is difficult to quantify production as most of the fruit is consumed locally. Data does suggest China and India make up nearly half the worldwide production. In the U.S., Florida leads the states in production,5 followed by Michigan, California, New York, Oregon and Georgia.
The U.S. is also the world’s largest importer of squash, having imported more than 300,000 metric each year, 90.5 percent of which came from Mexico in 2016.6 There are hundreds of different named varieties of squash, but there are likely countless more yet to be developed as they are prone to cross-pollination.7
Plant Garden Squash at the Proper Time and in the Proper Space
As demonstrated in the video above, summer squash grow in a low bushy formation and work well in containers or in the ground, while winter squash grow along vines, working best when planted directly in the ground.8 If you live in an area with a short growing season, you can start the seeds indoors approximately two to three weeks before the date of your last frost.
Indoors, plants can be started in deep flats or large cell six-packs. Keep the seeds in a warm area until germination, usually occurring five to 10 days after planting. Don’t allow the soil to dry out, but also avoid excessive watering as squash seeds will rot in cool wet soil.
Prepare garden soil to a depth of about 20 inches. In the early spring or late fall, consider adding about 2 inches of composted manure, mixing it thoroughly with the soil. At the same time, you may also add organic fertilizers and soil amendments as the plants are heavy feeders. The soil pH should also be adjusted as squash grows best in a pH of 6.1 to 6.5, or a slightly acidic soil.9
If you have started your plants indoors, don’t use those that have already begun flowering, as they will not develop well and will reduce your yield. The best time to plant seedlings in the garden is after they’ve developed the first set of true leaves, but before the second set have appeared. Take care not to disturb the roots as this increases the length of time it takes the plant to become established.10
When planting directly in the ground, sow the seeds 1 inch deep and about 6 inches apart on hills spaced between 3 and 5 feet apart.11 At each hill plant between six and eight seeds. As the seedlings germinate, remove all but the strongest two to three when the plants are approximately 4 inches tall. This will significantly improve your total yield.
Squash have an extensive root system that spreads broadly, but does not go deep. Mulching around your plants is critical, especially in hot climates, in order to keep the plants from drying out quickly. If squash are grown in overcrowded conditions, it promotes the development of mildew and other diseases. The plants need plenty of air circulation to reduce fungal growth.12
Planting Sisters Increases Your Yield and Discourages Weeds
Early Native American farmers learned to grow squash, corn and beans together, using a symbiotic relationship called “The Three Sisters” approach. The corn was a natural trellis for the beans, while the bean roots naturally added nitrogen into the soil to nourish the corn. The vines would help to stabilize the corn on windy days.
The squash growing low to the ground would shelter the shallow roots of the corn plants, discourage weed growth and preserve moisture in the ground. The tradition of calling these crops “The Three Sisters” originated with the Iroquois who lived in regions around the Great Lakes in Northeastern U.S. and Canada.
All three are planted together in the same hill as it assists with drainage and avoids water flooding the roots, important in a region receiving abundant rainfall. In dry areas where rainfall is not abundant, the plants are separated with wide spacing to maximize limited amounts of water, allowing the vine plants to provide ground cover and “stack” the planting area to fill the space.13
If you choose to plant “The Three Sisters” together, they should be planted in the order of corn, beans and then squash to ensure they grow and mature together and not at the expense of another.14
Corn is planted first, followed by beans two to three weeks later when the corn is at least a few inches tall. Squash seeds can then be planted one week after the beans have emerged, as you don’t want large squash leaves shading out young corn and bean seedlings before they’ve had time to establish.15
Other companion plants for squash that do well together are basil, catnip and other aromatic herbs. These can be planted on the borders around your squash patch or between the hills. The flowers from these aromatic herbs attract pollinators and the volatile oils deter squash bugs.16
Add Food and Remove Pests
Even when planted in composted soil, squash are heavy feeders and may require a side dressing of compost, composted manure or good organic fertilizer midseason.17 The plants grow consistently throughout the summer months and produce heavy amounts of fruit requiring a steady supply of water and food.
During dry hot weather, water your squash a good 1 to 1.5 inches each week to maintain the plants. Once the plant begins flowering and fruiting you may consider drip irrigation to reduce the potential for fungal diseases like powdery mildew. If you use overhead sprinkling, do it early in the day so the foliage has time to dry before evening.18
Watch for signs of diseases or pests and intervene as quickly as possible to prevent more severe problems from developing. Cut back leaves toward the center of the plant overshadowed by larger leaves, as the older leaves will pick up powdery mildew and spread it later in the season. If you see fuzzy leaves with powdery mildew, cut off them off where they join the main stem.
Powdery mildew doesn’t usually affect yields but may spread quickly. If you’re growing winter squash consider burying a few nodes where the side vines branch away from the main vine throughout the growing season. This encourages rooting from the node so you won’t lose the whole plant if the main vine is severed by pests, or if the roots are eaten by gophers.19
If you see a sudden, severe wilting of an entire plant, it’s often the sign of gopher damage, especially in the western states. You may be able to discourage gophers by lining the beds with wire mesh. Squash can also be attacked by spotted or striped cucumber beetles, squash bugs and squash borers.
Adult beetles and nymphs bore holes in the leaves and a heavy infestation of any of these pests may reduce the number of fruit from the plant. Squash borers are the larvae of orange moths that burrow into the stems of the squash. Follow the vine back to the nearest healthy leaf and look for chewed up stem shavings to locate the borers tunnel.
You can dig the borers out of the vine with a pocket knife. Bury the damaged area of the vine under soil or mulch and water it. The plant may develop roots from the wound. It is important to clear the debris left in the ground in the fall to reduce infestation of vine borers the following year, as they can overwinter in the dead stems.20
Harvest and Store Your Squash
As demonstrated in the video above, cut your summer and winter squash at an angle with the open area facing the ground. This helps reduce moisture buildup in the stem left on the plant and the potential for disease. Once harvested, summer squash should be used within a couple of days for the best taste, but can last up to a week in the refrigerator.
Winter squash can be stored and used much longer. After fall harvest you can keep the garden-fresh flavor buy curing your squash and preparing it for long-term storage.21 During the curing process, winter squash is stored at a warm temperature with good circulation for approximately 10 to 14 days. This helps remove excess water, slows the fruits respiration rate and helps reduce the chance of rot.
Look for blemishes on the fruit. If the skin is broken or bruised the squash will not store well.22 Maintain 2- to 3-inch-long stems for the best results. Keep your squash dry and don’t handle or harvest wet fruit.
The length of storage for the fruit will vary depending upon the type of squash you harvest. Acorn squash stores well for up to four weeks, spaghetti squash for up to five weeks and butternut squash for up to six months. You’ll get the best results when the squash are stored in a cool dry area, between 50 and 55 degrees Fahrenheit with a relative humidity between 60 and 70 percent.
Health Benefits and Taste Make Squash a Great Addition to Your Meals
Squash have a very rich nutritional profile containing a variety of nutrients, vitamins and minerals responsible for providing an impressive number of health benefits. The rich orange color is a hint to the high amount of beta-carotene, contributing to the health benefits to the fruit. Also included in the list of nutrients are:23
The nutrients found in squash contribute to an impressive number of health benefits, including:
Help for eye and skin health — Vitamin A is an essential nutrient responsible for protecting your eyes and skin from cellular damage.
Aid in wound healing and skin health — High levels of vitamin C are important for collagen production, vital in wound healing and skin repair. According to the Journal of Investigative Dermatology,24 vitamin A may help prevent skin damage caused by ultraviolet light (photoaging).
Fighting free radicals — As a good source of antioxidants, squash may protect you from oxidative stress and damage.
Building strong bones — A total of 46 milligrams of calcium are found in a cup of acorn squash,25 which may help build strong bones.26
Protecting heart health — The levels of magnesium and potassium form an effective line of defense against cardiovascular disease, including helping to regulate blood pressure.27
Protecting digestive health — A single-cup serving of acorn squash contains 2.1 grams of dietary fiber.28 This can help promote digestive health by adding bulk to your stools, thereby promoting regular waste elimination. As a result, the risk for common digestive problems such as constipation and diarrhea are reduced.29
Helping regulate metabolism — A good source of B-complex vitamins essential in metabolic activity. Certain types of squash also contain high amounts of pectin, a dietary fiber helpful in regulating blood sugar.
Helping to reduce inflammation — Studies using squash have found a link to reducing gastric and duodenal ulcers, and to general anti-inflammatory effects in the cardiovascular system.30
Preventing infection — The seeds have antimicrobial,31 and antifungal activity32 in the body.
Simple, Tasty and Healthy Recipe Options
Squash are a favorite fall addition. They add depth and flavor to your dishes and a powerful nutrient-dense punch to your health plan. The seeds provide fiber and unsaturated fatty acids with protein, mineral and vitamins. They can be added to your salad or packed as an afternoon snack.
To bake your own, separate the seeds from the squash, spread them on a baking sheet and toast lightly at 160 to 170 degrees F for 15 to 20 minutes. The low temperature decreases damage to healthy oils like linoleic acid (polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid) and oleic acid — the same nonhydrogenated substance found in olive oil.
Robots are getting smaller and smaller, from the size of bugs down to tiny bead-shaped robots that could one day swim through the body to monitor health or deliver medication. MIT engineers recently managed to create cell-sized robots that could collect data about their environment, but were a little tricky to manufacture. Now, the team has found a way to mass produce these synthetic cells (syncells) through controlled fracturing of graphene.
Back in July, MIT revealed robots that were so small, they were forever at the mercy of the molecules of whatever liquid they were suspended in. That means there was no point trying to steer them, but they could still kick back and observe, sensing their surroundings and storing data for long periods of time. Later, they could be filtered out and analyzed to get a reading of water quality, for example, or biomarkers for disease in a patient’s bloodstream.
The problem was that these tiny bots all needed to be made by hand, which is obviously a time-consuming process. To speed things up, the team has now come up with a manufacturing process called “autoperforation.”
First, the electronics are encased in a polymer material. Then, tiny dots of this stuff are deposited onto a flat sheet of graphene by a micro-array printer, before another layer of graphene is laid out over the top. As the top layer settles it will drape down over the dots, like a tablecloth.
Next, the graphene is stressed to the point that it fractures. But rather than shattering randomly like a broken window, the material will break off at the strain points around each dot, leaving a series of syncells that look like they’ve been neatly hole-punched out. Better yet, the edges of the two graphene layers end up sticking together, wrapping the electronic components safely inside.
“This general procedure of using controlled fracture as a production method can be extended across many length scales,” says Albert Liu, co-author of a study describing the method. “[It could potentially be used with] essentially any 2D materials of choice, in principle allowing future researchers to tailor these atomically thin surfaces into any desired shape or form for applications in other disciplines.”
The syncells can store information in a memory array, which can be read later using an electrical probe and erased for reuse. As a test, the team encoded the letters M, I and T into a memory array within a syncell, and showed that it was readable, even after months of floating around in water. That data can even be stored without power.
In future, this mass production method could be used to make syncells with more functionality, like those used in the earlier study.
The research was published in the journal Nature Materials, and the team describes the work in the video below.
Lord Jacob Rothschild will be accepting an award. Maybe someone you know would like to go? Share this invitation. There must be a few people that would like to see him and his family up close.
If the people appearing at this gala wish to honor the Jewish people, they can start by returning the gold they stole from Asia or by financing a future planning agency to carry out a massive plan to fix up this deeply troubled planet of ours.
“Let me control the textbooks and I will control the state.” This quote has often been attributed to Adolf Hitler. Whether or not he said it is beside the point. As sinister as it sounds, it’s widely held that, “he alone, who owns the youth, gains the future.”
Educating children is an investment, and there are many fighting to invest in your children today in order to further their causes tomorrow.
So, what are we allowing them to put into their textbooks? What sort of state, what sort of future, are we allowing them to create? And what are we going to do about it?