For Greater Glory: Mexico’s Cristeros Resistance

‘We must not allow the Godless to take away our faith.’ — Friar Vega

The Mexican Revolution of 1910 was originally fought against longtime autocrat Porfirio Díaz and in favor of the demand by the mass of peasantry for land. However, later revolutionary leaders, and especially Plutarco Elias Calles (1877-1945), took on radical anti-Catholic stances, despite the Church’s strong support from the people.

After Diaz’s fall, the Catholic Church formed a political party, the National Catholic Party (NCP), that enjoyed good success at the ballot box. This didn’t set well with the gangsters who ruled the country during this unstable period.

On Feb. 18, 1913, Francisco I. Madero was forced to resign after a coup by military strongman Victoriano Huerta. A few days later, while being escorted to prison, Madero was assassinated by two policemen allegedly acting on Huerta’s orders.

Relations between the Catholic Church and Huerta grew strained after the publication of a letter in the NCP’s newspaper by Archbishop Leopoldo Ruiz y Flóres. The letter condemned Madero’s assassination and expressed doubt concerning the legality of Huerta’s regime.

Huerta perceived this publication as an attack on his authority and ordered the imprisonment of Gabriel Fernández, the president of the NCP.

It then got worse under the “revolutionary” (today hyped) Constitutionalists; who, rather than deliver agrarian reform, diverted attention against the Church. They demanded the Church donate 500,000 pesos to alleviate the condition of the poor. This levy was paid to the Revolutionary Council for Aid to the People under threat of execution. The actions infuriated the Church.

The bad blood grew when civil liberties of the members of the Catholic Church was infringed upon, and they were forced out of the political process by the Constitution of 1917.

In 1914, President Carranza — who put in place by the U.S. — inaugurated a period of open persecution. Priests were massacred, including 160 killed in Mexico during February 1915.

Nuns were abused and conscripted as camp followers and concubines of the warring factions roaming the country.

John Lind, one of Woodrow Wilson’s advisers, rejoiced over the news: “Great news! The more priests they kill in Mexico, the happier I shall be!”

An American pastor, indignant about the outraging of the nuns in Vera Cruz, received this reply from Wilson’s personal representative: “After prostitution, the worst thing in Mexico is the Catholic Church. Both must disappear!”

Plutarco Elias Calles became president in 1924. Calles’ Mexico has been characterized  as an atheist state, and his program as being one to eradicate religion in Mexico. He instituted a corrupt state-controlled labor union that ran the slave system and aggressively seized  Church property.

Although more religiously inclined rural folks spearheaded the Cristeros resistance, it also related to the official assimilation secular policies of the Mexican state. Only lip service was given to the value of the country’s ethnic, cultural, religious and linguistic heritage, as Mexico fell prey to Illuminism and compulsory collective “universalist” philosophies. The Catholic Church in Mexico tended toward decentralized localism.

Read Winter Watch’s “Illuminism and Freemason Uprising” series
“Part I: A Deep Dive into Revolutionary History with Nesta Webster and James Billington”
“Part II: Nesta Webster on Henri San-Simon and His Utopian Proto-Socialist Disciples”
“Part III: The European Revolutions of 1848”

The Cristero soldiers were primarily western peasants who tried to resist the heavy pressures of the cosmopolitans and its revolution of the city elites and of the rich (aka kakistocracy).

A. Sanders, in “La preuve par le Mexique,” stated that Mexico at the time was dominated by oligarchs: Rockefeller (rubber), Goblentz (textiles), Guggenheim (mines) and Hearst (aka Hirsch), who owned 3 million metric arces, and the Kuhn-Loeb bank, which financed Lenin.

Mexican Illuminist Jacobins, supported by Calles’ central government, went beyond mere anti-clericalism and engaged in secular anti-religious campaigns to eradicate what they called “superstition” and “fanaticism,” which included the desecration of religious objects as well as the persecution and murder of the clergy.

On May 28, 1926, Calles was awarded a Medal of Merit from the head of Mexico’s Scottish Rite of Freemasonry for his actions against the Catholics.

Calles also sent a now-documented private telegram to the Mexican Ambassador to France Alberto José Pani Arteaga advising him that the Catholic Church in Mexico is a “political movement and must be eliminated in order to proceed with a Socialist government free of religious hypnotism, which fools the people … within one year without the sacraments, the people will forget the faith.”

“Now there must be a psychological revolution,” Calles declared. “We must penetrate and take hold of the minds of the children and the youth because they must belong to the revolution.”

The use of such expressions as Adios, “If God wills,” or “God forbid,” was subject to a fine.

In June 1926, he signed the “Law for Reforming the Penal Code,” known unofficially as “Calles’ Law.” For instance, wearing clerical garb in public and outside of church buildings earned a fine of 500 pesos ($250 U.S. per the historical exchange rate). A priest who criticized the government could be imprisoned for five years.

To help enforce the law, Calles seized church property, expelled all foreign priests and closed the monasteries, convents and religious schools. There was a clampdown on popular religious celebrations, such as fiestas. Chihuahua enacted a law permitting only a single priest to serve the entire Catholic congregation of the state.

The Constitution stated, “Religious ceremonies of public nature shall be ordinarily performed at the temples. Those performed outdoors shall be regulated under the law.” “Regulated” under Calles meant prohibited.

There was a wide variety of attacks on the Catholic faith, morality and principles.

Image result for viva cristo rey flag

Catholic organizations began to intensify their resistance. The most important of these groups was the National League for the Defense of Religious Liberty founded in 1924.

On July 11, 1926, Catholic bishops voted to suspend all public worship in response to the Calles’ Law. On July 14, they endorsed plans for an economic boycott against the government, which was particularly effective in western-Central Mexico (the states of Jalisco, Michoacan, Guanajuato, Aguascalientes and Zacatecas).

Catholics in these areas stopped attending movies and plays and the use of public transportation, and Catholic teachers stopped teaching in secular schools.

The bishops worked to have the offending articles of the Constitution amended. Pope Pius XI explicitly approved this plan. Calles’ government considered the bishops’ activism sedition and had many more churches closed. Vatican officials were dismissed, and diplomatic relations were broken off by the government.

On Aug. 14, 1926, government agents staged a purge of the Chalchihuites’ Zacatecas chapter of the Association of Catholic Youth and executed their spiritual adviser, Father Luis Bátiz Sainz.

A series of local uprising and guerrilla actions followed. The formal Catholic rebellion began on Jan. 1, 1927, with a manifesto sent by Garza titled “A la Nación” (“To the Nation”). The Mexican episcopate never officially supported the rebellion, and tended to fair-weather support only when military success was forthcoming.

Therefore the rebels, called Cristeros (Christ the King), were grassroots and had scarce logistical supplies and relied heavily on fundraising from their Feminine Brigades of St. Joan of Arc, and raids on towns, trains and ranches in order to supply themselves with money, horses, ammunition and food.

By contrast, later in the war, Calles’ government was supplied with arms and ammunition by the U.S. government. In at least one battle, American pilots provided air support for the federal army against the Cristeros rebels.

On Feb. 23, 1927, the Cristeros defeated federal troops for the first time at San Francisco del Rincón, Guanajuato, followed by another victory at San Julián, Jalisco. However, they quickly began to lose in the face of superior federal forces, and they retreated into remote areas.

The media and government declared victory and plans were made for a “re-education campaign” in the areas that had rebelled. Concentration camps were set up for this.

In August 1927, the Cristeros got a boost when retired general and a military professional with skills Enrique Gorostieta joined. As the Federales came to realize they were the oppressors and their losses mounted-  morale sank, and desertions were high.

With 50,000 fighters in the field, the Cristeros maintained the upper hand throughout 1928. In 1929, the federal government faced a new crisis: a revolt within army ranks.

Both U.S. councils, and mostly newly formed Mexican councils of the Knights of Columbus, opposed the persecution by the Mexican government. They circulated 5 million leaflets educating the U.S. about the war, held hundreds of lectures and spread the news via radio.

Congress named Emilio Portes Gil as interim president. Portes was more open to the Church than Calles and told a foreign correspondent on May 1, 1929, that “the Catholic clergy, when they wish, may renew the exercise of their rites.”

U.S. Ambassador Dwight Morrow managed to bring the parties to “arreglos” (agreement) on June 21, 1929. Religious instruction in the churches (but not in the schools) would be permitted. The church would recover the right to use its properties, and priests recovered their rights to live on such property.

Legally speaking, the church was not allowed to own real estate, and its former facilities remained federal property. However, the church effectively took control over the properties.

On June 27, 1929, church bells rang in Mexico for the first time in almost three years. The war had claimed the lives of some 90,000 people. However, despite the agreement, Cristeros continued to be rounded up and murdered. Torture was standard treatment.

There were 4,500 priests serving the people before the rebellion. By 1934, there were only 334 licensed by the government to serve 15 million people. The rest had been eliminated by emigration, expulsion and assassination. By 1935, 17 states had no priests at all.

The Cristero War affected emigration to the U.S. Many of the Cristeros — by some estimates as much as 5 percent of Mexico’s population —fled to the United States. Many of them made their way to Los Angeles. Old line Mexican-American immigrant families in southern California tend to be religious conservative Cristeros and pro-American, a far cry from more recent arrivals.

After the supposed truce, puppet-master Calles behind the scenes continued a push for complete state monopoly on education, suppressing all Catholic education and introducing secular education in its place: “We must enter and take possession of the mind of childhood, the mind of youth.”

Mexico’s Congress amended Article 3 of the Constitution in October 1934 to include the following introductory text (translated):

The education imparted by the State shall be a socialist one and, in addition to excluding all religious doctrine, shall combat fanaticism and prejudices by organizing its instruction and activities in a way that shall permit the creation in youth of an exact and rational concept of the Universe and of social life.

This invoked a counter-terror against secularist teachers by the Cristeros. It’s calculated that approximately 300 rural teachers were murdered between 1935 and 1939. Many others had their ears cut off by the Cristeros. These are often known as maestros desorejados (“teachers without ears”) in Mexico.

The secularist amendments were invalidated by President Manuel Ávila Camacho in 1940 and officially repealed from the Mexican Constitution in 1946.

On May 21, 2000, Pope Saint John Paul II canonized a group of 25 martyrs from this period. Twenty-two were secular clergy and three were laymen. They refused to leave their flocks and ministries, being shot or hanged by government forces for offering the sacraments.

The martyrdom of Father St. Cristobal Magallanes and 14-year-old St. José Luis Sánchez del Río [from the film “Cristeros, For Greater Glory”  (2012)].

The Science of Intention: Recognizing the Power behind Our Intentions

By Miranda Weindling,

The ideas of intention setting, daily affirmations, law of attraction and manifestation, or in the lexicon of the Yoga tradition, ‘Sankalpa’, drive towards the same idea, that if we are clear about what we really want in our lives and take some time on a regular basis to articulate it…we can ‘magic’ it in.

For many people, these ideas are far too rooted in the realms of esoteric traditions. Consequently, they dismiss them before they can even contemplate trying them. However, it’s not really magic at all. Contemporary findings in the burgeoning field of neuroplasticity outline our neurological capacity to change our beliefs, behaviours, and habits.

By drawing together this body of scientific research with how to effectively set an intention, I am endeavouring to start to scratch the surface of why a Sankalpa practice is such an effective transformational tool – and where those changes can be visibly traced in the brain, as well as the body.

The Science behind Sankalpa

Serendipitously, I first started a Sankalpa practice around the same time I encountered the concept of neuroplasticity:

Neuroplasticity simply refers to the fact that the brain is the organ that is built to change in response to experience.

There's science behind intention settingMany of us dismiss intention setting as esoteric, but there is a science behind it.

This explanation comes from psychology and psychiatry Professor, Richard Davidson, the pioneering figurehead in this field. Understanding neuroplasticity was actually what gave me the push to start – and stick with – a Sankalpa practice, as both told me that lasting change was indeed possible.This is particularly true in Davidson’s latest work and research, as the founder of the Centre for Healthy Minds. Here the research team look at ways to utilise the potentiality of neuroplasticity to induce positive change.

As the Centre’s website states:

We’re learning we can shape our brains in more adaptive and beneficial ways by cultivating healthy habits of mind…When given a challenging situation your brain hasn’t encountered before, it can reorganise and restructure to respond to that situation. The more often your brain is exposed to that new challenge – like learning a musical instrument, for instance – the more it reorganises and makes that path more established…Our brains are constantly being shaped wittingly or unwittingly – most of the time unwittingly….We’re raising the possibility to intentionally training our brains to improve well-being.

Challenge yourself!New challenges, like learning an instrument, build new neural pathways.

It was during my final year of undergrad, armed with newly acquired knowledge on neuroplasticity and a Yoga Nidra recording, that I decided to take on the overwhelming anxiety that was threatening to make me fail my degree. Having always been a shy child, I assumed that the increasing anxiety I suffered in any potentially stressful situation was just how I was wired. However, the wisdom of neuroplasticity told me that I had the brainpower to re-wire myself – this would involve taking on my thought process, so I turned my attention to my mind and the stories of fear and failure I was telling myself.Whereas neuroplasticity is neurological – and therefore begins with the brain as an organ, a Sankalpa practice is psychological – pertaining to our complex and intangible mind.

What is Sankalpa?

The Sanskrit term is traditionally translated as our existing, motivating, subconscious ‘desires.’ It is, in Freudian psychoanalytic terms, our drive. The desire that is motivating us, residing deep within the unconscious realms of our mind.

The nature of this drive, enhancing or destructive, is born out of our past experiences but is striving for constant satisfaction in the present, thus determining our future action.

In modern-day yoga, the notion of the Sankalpa has been developed into a practice, whereby we consciously set an intention. It takes the form of a simple, positive, present tense statement. By creating a practice centering on this intention or ‘resolve’ – to use the contemporary translation of Sankalpa – the aim is to choose and then change what our driving desire is.

Choose and change your driving desireThe aim of a Sankalpa practice is to choose and then change what our driving desire is.

In its very simplest expression, my anxiety came from fear, so I needed to find the antidote. I settled upon the phrase ‘I am confident.’ To the point and positive. However, just muttering ‘I am confident. I am confident. I am confident…’ to myself in a mirror wasn’t quite going to cut it. An effective intention needs to be truly felt in order to really believe it.

This is why a Sankalpa statement is often practised during meditation, as part of a visualization, or in my case a Yoga Nidra practice – the yogic sleep where the statement can be dropped into the subconscious. Effectively, an opportunity that creates a space where we can allow ourselves to really feel that the change already exists within us.

Sankalpa Practice as Neuroplastic Training

There is a distinct correlation between the basis of neuroplasticity as a means to train our brain and a Sankalpa practice that rests on the idea that we can actively choose and change our motivating drive and desires.

But there is another significant element on which they both agree: the mind-body connection. Neuroplastic research gives evidence of this psycho-physical relationship. In one of Davidson’s aptly titled talk ‘Transform your mind, change your brain: Neuroplasticity and personal transformation’ he uses the phrase ‘the embodied mind’ to encapsulate the idea that our minds and brains are not simply supported by a disembodied architecture, but rather there is bidirectional communication between the brain and the body which provides a mechanism for our minds to influence our bodies in ways that may be consequential for health.

Richard Davidson’s talk on Neuroplasticity and personal transformation.

This is why a successful Sankalpa practice asks that we actually believe our present-tense ‘I am…’ statement, so much so that it is felt in the body. You physically know what it is like in that moment to have that asset in your life. This phenomenon is perhaps the most integral, if not the most challenging part of a Sankalpa practice. However, as Davidson states, it is bidirectional – therefore if the mind is having trouble believing, start with the body.

‘Fake it ’til You Become it’

These words are synonymous with social psychologist Amy Cuddy’s viral 2012 TED Talk ‘Your Body Language Shapes Who You Are’. This is perhaps one of the most known explanations of how to tap into the embodied mind. Cuddy’s research was motivated by the proposition that when you pretend to be powerful, you are more likely to actually feel powerful we know that our minds change our bodies, but is it also true that our bodies change our minds?

Effectively, if you play the part, particularly through body language, of a ‘powerful’ or successful person it is possible to actually influence the body’s physiological processes to line up with this. It appears that another natural consequence of this will be the creation of a new thought pattern or neuroplastic change.

A beautiful thing about Cuddy’s research is its emphasis on the body first, so even if you cannot find that state of belief in your mind you can give it a helping hand by playing the part in your body and behaviour.

Fake it 'til you make it!‘Power Poses’ makes us feel more confident, despite what our minds may tell us.

I certainly used this trick as I rolled my shoulders back and walked purposefully into the exam hall, even though I had an overwhelming urge to bolt. However, over time, with dedicated practice to feeling confident, the desire to run became quieter as the purposeful walk towards the situation became more natural. It wasn’t until I got really familiar with imagining what my life would feel like if I was free from anxiety during my Sankalpa practice, that I began to get an actual taste of confidence in my day-to-day life. I discovered for myself that it is as much a state of the body, as it is a state of mind.A Sankalpa practice is far less mysterious than it initially sounds, as placed into a scientific context it is effectively a form of neuroplastic training. The aim is to integrate the wishes of the mind into the neurological processes of the brain, which translates to the functioning and feelings in our body and ultimately is seen in the actions and appearances of us as individuals! The transformation can happen from the top (brain/mind) down, or from the bottom (body/behaviour) up. So if stating your desire is not working, try flipping it on its head and let the body guide the mind.