While no one knows exactly when coffee was discovered, the National Coffee Association reports there are many legends surrounding its origin. The story repeated most frequently1 is of a goat herder who discovered the potential of the beans when he noticed the behavior of his goats after they ate the berries.2
From this humble beginning grew an enormous industry. According to data gathered by World Atlas3 the top three coffee consuming countries starts with Finland, where citizens drink 12 kilograms (26.4 pounds) of coffee per person per year. Norway is second consuming 9.9 kg (21.8 pounds) per capita, followed by Iceland with 9 kg (19.8 pounds) per person per year.
The U.S. ranks No. 25, in last place, where residents consume 4.2 kg (9.2 pounds) per capita, behind Portugal, Lebanon, Croatia, Greece and Brazil. According to the most recent data gathered by the National Coffee Association4 as reported by the Daily Coffee News,5 the amount of coffee consumed in America has remained unchanged in the last year, but more gourmet brew is being served.
For the first time in 69 years of publishing coffee trends, reported consumption of gourmet coffee has overtaken non-gourmet, the Daily Coffee News said. Another interesting factoid: If you frequent a local coffee house for your morning cup, you may be spending up to 45 hours per year waiting for your shot of caffeine.6
But whether you’re standing in line for your coffee or brewing it at home to boost you through the morning, have you ever wondered if the mild diuretic effect you experience may trigger dehydration?
Don’t Believe the Rumor About Coffee Dehydrating You
It may have begun as a rumor, but science has since proven that even a moderate intake of coffee each day will not produce dehydration.7 There has been a historical suggestion coffee and other caffeinated drinks may cause dehydration and therefore should be avoided to maintain an optimal fluid balance.
To evaluate physiological factors, researchers8 engaged 50 men who habitually drank from three to six cups of coffee each day. The group underwent testing using water or caffeinated coffee. The researchers controlled the participants’ activity, food, fluid and coffee intake during the study.
They measured total body water and used urinary and blood hydration markers to evaluate hydration status. Interestingly, they concluded “there were no significant differences across a wide range of hematological and urinary markers of hydration status between trials.”
Their data suggest habitual male coffee drinkers could enjoy some of the same hydration from coffee as from drinking water. Dr. Daniel Vigil from the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California explained to Time Magazine9 how the mild diuretic effects of caffeine do not cause you to become dehydrated, but instead increase your level of hydration.
Although it seems logical to assume you’re headed toward dehydration when you experience frequent urination after drinking coffee, Vigil explains your body doesn’t lose more fluid from the mild diuretic effect of caffeine than you take in by drinking it. He explains a headache after drinking your morning cup of joe may indicate you’re sensitive to caffeine or that you could already be dehydrated.10
Some Drinks Offer More Hydration
A study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition11 sought to assess the potential that different beverages had on hydration status and to identify a hydration index. They believed it was important to categorize drinks that promote fluid balance in clinical settings with an aim at helping individuals who may not have free access to fluid or the ability to take frequent bathroom breaks.
They analyzed the effect 13 commonly consumed beverages had on participants when they were in an optimal state of hydration, and found drinks that emptied from the stomach at a slower rate were able to continue to hydrate over a longer time period. As CNN explains, factors slowing absorption included protein, full-fat milk and low levels of sugar12 — exactly what you’d find in pasture-raised, raw milk or coconut water.
Researchers found raising the level of sugar in the drinks did not increase the benefit to hydration. In fact, not only did it contribute to insulin resistance, but the higher levels of sugar were more dehydrating as the fluid reached the small intestines.
Every cell in your body depends on staying hydrated for health. Hydration is critical for your cardiovascular health as it keeps the muscles working efficiently and helps the heart pump the blood through the body more easily.13
However, hydration is about getting water inside your cells and not simply about drinking more water. You’ll find more information about how to hydrate at the cellular level in my past article “Hydration Is About More Than Just Drinking Water — How to Hydrate at the Cellular Level to Improve Health and Longevity.”
Coffee Stimulates Brown Fat and Your Metabolism
Most people drink their morning cup of coffee to help get their engines running, but researchers have also found the amount of caffeine in one standard cup of coffee is enough to stimulate brown fat activity, burning more energy and potentially improving your insulin sensitivity. These cellular activities may also help improve weight management.
Brown fat tissue is involved in heat generation and burning glucose and fats in a mitochondrial reaction mediated by mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). When UCP1 is upregulated, it may reduce the potential for obesity. Researchers14 performed an analysis of the results of exposure to caffeine on cell cultures and in healthy human participants.
In both experiments, data demonstrated positive results. Treatment with caffeine increased the expression of UCP1 in cellular culture. In healthy adults, imaging demonstrated an increased temperature of brown adipose tissue in the supraclavicular area after drinking coffee that was not present after drinking water.
More Health Benefits Associated With Coffee
Hold the flavored cream and sugar if you’d like to enjoy many of the health benefits associated with properly grown, harvested and roasted coffee. Harvard recounts the history of coffee and health. In 1991 the World Health Organization placed it on a list of possible carcinogens. By 2016 research data showed coffee was associated with a decreased risk of certain cancers.
Just the thought of coffee is associated with a psychological arousal, especially in Western cultures. Researchers15 found after being exposed to coffee cues, such as images, participants reacted as if they had consumed the drink. Participants perceived time as shorter and thought in more concrete, precise terms suggesting a more alert state of mind.16
Based on another meta-analysis of 30 perspective studies17 from 2002 to 2015, researchers in Sweden concluded drinking coffee was inversely associated with the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. Participants from ages 20 to 70 were followed for a median of 5.8 years. The researchers found those who drank coffee, compared to nondrinkers, had a lower risk of prediabetes and Type 2 diabetes.
Another long-term study18 suggested it was coffee reducing the risk and not tea. Detailed information was gathered every two to four years for more than 20 years from participants in three large studies. The data showed when volunteers increased coffee consumption by more than one cup every day for four years, they experienced a 12% lower risk of Type 2 diabetes in the next four years.
In my past article “Black Coffee in the Morning and Green Tea in the Afternoon May Provide Valuable Health Benefits” I discuss some other benefits to drinking coffee, including a reduced risk of stroke, heart failure and premature death.
One meta-analysis found coffee also benefited athletes by improving their performance19 and another found caffeine reduced post-workout muscle soreness.20
Choose Organic or Biodynamic Dark Roast
While there are multiple benefits to drinking coffee, it is crucial you are drinking dark roast, organically or biodynamically grown coffee beans. The brown to black coffee beans you take out of the bag begin their life green. They are roasted at high heat to release their flavor.
Coffee may be produced as a light to dark roast, each with a unique taste and acidity level.21 Dark roasted coffee has some of the best health benefits related to the high level of antioxidants and low level of acrylamide. For more information about how these factors affect your health, see my past article, “What’s All The Noise About Coffee?”
The color of coffee roast is not your only consideration when you choose it. It’s also important to seek out organically or biodynamically ground coffee beans. For example, in their effort to monitor chemical residues, Nestle brand found:22
“ … in some green coffee lots chemical residue levels are close to limits defined by regulations. We are reinforcing our controls working with suppliers to ensure that our green coffee continues to meet regulations all around the world.”
The chemical residues are the result of the application of glyphosate in countries producing coffee beans. Nestle has put into effect new procedures beginning October 1, 2019, until levels of glyphosate contamination in the beans can drop. Bloomberg23 reports this has “the potential to complicate global coffee trade-flows.”
Brazilian producers report they are working to reduce chemical residues to meet European requirements, which are much stricter than American regulations. Remember, the quality of the food you eat is determined by how it’s grown.
Even organically produced food – meaning that it’s grown without pesticides – may be grown in nutrient-deficient soil. Discover more in my past article, “The Effects of Biodynamic Farming on the Environment and Food Quality.”
October is National Breast Cancer Awareness Month in the U.S. Chances are you’ve seen the pink ribbons drawing attention to breast cancer awareness campaigns and reminders that mammograms save lives. Unfortunately, little attention has been paid to educating women about preventing breast cancer.
According to the World Health Organization,1 breast cancer is the most common type of cancer found in women around the world. Statistics from the American Cancer Society2 reveal approximately 12% of women in the U.S. will develop invasive breast cancer and it’s estimated 268,600 new cases of invasive breast cancer will be diagnosed. The organization reports it is likely that 41,760 will die by the end of 2019.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention finds breast cancer is the most common cause of death from any type of cancer in Hispanic women. It is also the second most common cause of death from any cancer in many other groups of women, including white, black, Asian Pacific Islander, American Indian and Alaskan natives.3
In one study evaluating 28 countries, data showed the incidence of breast cancer in the U.S. had increased from 1975 to 2004 while the mortality rate had declined from 1960 to 2002.4
Raw Garlic and Onions Reduce Risk of Breast Cancer
The catalyst for one population based study in Puerto Rico was the lower rate of breast cancer on the island as compared to the mainland.5 Scientists6 from the University at Buffalo sought to assess the evidence associated with eating onions and garlic and the prevention of breast cancer. The researchers wrote that an inverse relationship between the intake of onion and garlic and the risk of lung, prostate and stomach cancers had been previously established.
The team collaborated with the University of Puerto Rico7 to analyze the association between these ingredients commonly found in a popular condiment, sofrito. Lead study author Gauri Desai from the University at Buffalo School of Public Health and Health Professions, said in a press release from the University,8 “We found that among Puerto Rican women, the combined intake of onion and garlic, as well as sofrito, was associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer.”
The final data revealed those who ate sofrito more than once a day enjoyed a 67% reduction in their risk of breast cancer as compared to women who did not. Desai9 pointed out that it was the total amount of onions and garlic the women ate that provided the protective effect and not sofrito alone.
While Desai recognizes10 “Puerto Rico has lower breast cancer rates compared to the mainland U.S.,” the rise in rates from 0.018% to 0.05% between 1960 and 1990 has drawn the concern of experts.11 Data were gathered from 2008 to 2014 from participants enrolled in the Atabey Study of Breast Cancer. The researchers identified 314 women with breast cancer from those ages 30 to 79.12
The study included 346 women in a control group whose only history of cancer included non-melanoma skin cancer and who lived in the same geographical area. After adjusting for age, education, number of pregnancies, family history and other factors, the researchers found there was a strong inverse relationship between breast cancer and those who ate moderate to high amounts of raw garlic and onions.
Protective Properties of Raw Garlic and Onions
Desai said their interest in garlic and onions was related to the high levels of flavanols and organosulfur compounds found in the ingredients.13 Allium is a large family of herbs to which both onions and garlic belong.14 The researchers15 were interested in the diallyl sulfide, diallyl disulfide and S-allylcysteine found in garlic and the alk(en)yl cysteine sulphoxides found in onions.
In addition to protection against cancer, garlic has a history of protecting your brain as you age. University of Louisville researchers16 linked the allyl sulfide compound in garlic to improved long- and short-term memory in an animal model. Those receiving the supplement also demonstrated healthier gut bacteria. The findings were presented at the 2019 Experimental Biology meeting.
Associate professor Neetu Tyagi, Ph.D., from the department of physiology at the University of Louisville, commented on the team’s interest in analyzing the relationship between gut diversity and the development of neurodegenerative diseases. As reported in a press release, Tyagi said:17
“The diversity of the gut microbiota is diminished in elderly people, a life stage when neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s develop and memory and cognitive abilities can decline. We want to better understand how changes in the gut microbiota relate to aging-associated cognitive decline.”
As I have discussed before, garlic stimulates your immune function, has an antimicrobial effect and has a history of preventing a variety of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, including high blood pressure and diabetes.18 Raw garlic also reduces blood coagulation, meaning it is a potent blood thinner.
The other half of the featured study analyzed the effect of raw onions, rich in polyphenols, quercetin and inulin. Red onions offer an additional benefit associated with anthocyanin, the pigment that turns the onion red and supports free radical scavenging. Seek out organically grown red onions for your meals as they reduce your toxic load and offer greater nutritional benefits.19,20
Optimize Vitamin D for Protection Against Breast Cancer
Another easy step you may take to help reduce your risk of cancer is optimizing your vitamin D levels. As I’ve discussed in the past, optimized serum vitamin D levels may reduce your risk of cancer by as much as 67%. Most cancers occur in those with levels between 10 and 40 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL), and the optimal level for vitamin D has been identified between 60 and 80 ng/mL.
Not only does vitamin D offer protection against developing cancer,21 but maintaining optimal levels increases your chances of surviving cancer if you do get it. One of the easiest and most cost-effective ways of testing your levels to protect your breast health is enrolling in the D*action Project Enrollment – Breast Cancer Prevention Project, which now includes omega-3 testing with vitamin D.
Participation in the project helps scientists learn more about how these two essential nutrients function together. The results also help determine how you can make changes affecting your health. The tests are done at home, are completely private and require no doctor or lab visit.
Once your sample and questionnaire are mailed, your results are usually ready within 10 to 20 days after the lab receives your sample. I offer this test kit simply as a convenience and courtesy as I don’t benefit or participate in the test in anyway. Proceeds from the sale go directly to GrassrootsHealth.22
Although the best way to get your vitamin D is through sensible sun exposure, this may be challenging if you live in the Northern Hemisphere. If you need oral supplementation to achieve an optimal level, also consider your intake of calcium, magnesium and vitamin K2.
These four nutrients work together to direct calcium into your bones and teeth. Inadequate levels of vitamin K2, in the MK-7 form, may increase your absorption of calcium resulting in deposits in your heart and kidney. Your calcium-to-magnesium ratio is also important for cell function, and magnesium is required for the activation of vitamin D.
Mammograms Have No Impact on Mortality
Mammography has proven to detect invasive breast cancer but may not be the right tool to reduce rates as there is concern it does more harm than good. The significant drawbacks happen when you undergo consistent mammograms that you may have been told would help diagnose early breast cancer.
As reported in one study published in the British Medical Journal,23 researchers used a five-year screening in 15 centers across six Canadian provinces, enrolling 89,835 women from between the ages of 40 and 59 years old. The participants were assigned to either receive five annual mammogram screens or an annual physical breast exam without mammography.
During the study period, 3,250 women who received mammography were diagnosed with breast cancer and 500 died. This was compared to 3,133 diagnosed in the group who did not receive a mammogram and 505 who died from the disease. The authors of the study concluded:24
“Annual mammography in women aged 40-59 does not reduce mortality from breast cancer beyond that of physical examination or usual care when adjuvant therapy for breast cancer is freely available.”
The featured study clearly identified the protective effects garlic and onion have in mitigating the development of breast cancer. By reducing your potential risk through optimizing your vitamin D levels and making healthy additions to your diet, you will be on the road to take control of your health.
Make Delicious Sofrito at Home
Sofrito is often the foundation for many Caribbean dishes.25 The aromatic blend of ingredients has been used to season stews, beans and rice dishes. Although it is often tomato based, Caribbean variations include mixtures ranging from green to bright red and from mild to spicy.
Since fresh, homemade sofrito contains no preservatives, it doesn’t usually last more than four days in the refrigerator. However, you may easily extend this to several months by freezing it in ice cube trays26 and popping the cubes into an airtight container in your freezer. This way you’ll be able to enjoy sofrito throughout the winter months.
Sofrito may be used raw or it may be slightly cooked. The condiment used in the featured study used raw ingredients because even slight cooking may reduce the health benefits associated with garlic and onion. Following is a recipe adapted from AllRecipes.com27 that can be ready in minutes.
- 2 green bell peppers
- 1 red bell pepper
- 10 ajies dulces peppers (may substitute 10 ajies dulces with 1 red bell pepper)
- 3 medium tomatoes
- 4 onions
- 3 medium heads of garlic
- 25 stems of cilantro with leaves
- 25 recao stems with leaves (may substitute with Mexican coriander or long coriander)
- 1 Tablespoon Himalayan Sea Salt (or less to taste)
- 1 Tablespoon black pepper
- Prepare the ingredients by seeding and coarsely chopping the peppers, peeling the garlic and coarsely chopping the onion and tomato.
- Add all ingredients to a food processor and pulse process until it’s the consistency of semi-chunky salsa.
- Add just half the salt, then taste it after processing. Mix in more if needed.
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are long-chained omega-3 fats found in cold-water fatty fish like wild-caught Alaskan salmon, sardines, anchovies and certain other sea creatures, including krill.
Along with vitamin D testing, measuring your omega-3 level at least once a year is strongly recommended, as being low in this vital nutrient can spell trouble for your health in more ways than one.
One of the reasons why DHA and EPA are so crucial is because they’re actually key structural elements of cells; they’re not just simple fuel. If you don’t have enough DHA and EPA, your body’s ability to repair and maintain healthy cell structures is seriously impaired.
Marine-Based Omega-3 Protects Heart Health
Marine-based omega-3 is particularly important for your heart health. According to a 2016 analysis1,2 of 19 studies, higher blood levels of DHA were found to lower the risk of a fatal heart attack by 10%. This effect held true even after accounting for confounding factors like age, sex, ethnicity, diabetes and use of aspirin or cholesterol-lowering drugs.
Studies have also shown that, when taken after a heart attack, omega-3 fats can significantly improve your odds of survival.3 A large Italian trial4 found that heart attack survivors who took 1 gram of omega-3 fat per day for 3.5 years had a “clinically important and statistically significant” reduction in the risk for death, nonfatal heart attack and stroke. Animal-based omega-3 fats, especially DHA, protect and support your cardiovascular health by:5
- Lowering blood pressure and improving endothelial function
- Counteracting or preventing cardiac arrhythmia
- Lowering triglyceride concentrations
- Helping prevent thrombosis (a blood clot within a blood vessel) by decreasing platelet aggregation
- Counteracting inflammation
Most recently, results from five years of study by The North American Menopause Society (NAMS), the VITAL study (which is looking at both omega-3 and vitamin D) show fish oil supplementation lowers your risk for heart attack.6,7 Results8 were presented at the September 25 through 28, 2019, NAMS meeting in Chicago. Contemporary Clinic reported the results, noting:9
“People with dietary fish intake below the cohort median of 1.5 servings per week saw the greatest treatment benefit. Meanwhile, participants whose intake was above that level did not see as much as a benefit.”
Nutrient Requirements Could Be Met by Local Fish Catches
An interesting study10,11,12 published September 25, 2019, suggests fish is an excellent source of a variety of nutrients, including iron and zinc, and that many micronutrient deficiencies could be resolved by retaining more of the local fish catches in any given area rather than exporting them.
As reported in a press release,13 the data “showed important nutrients were readily available in the fish already being caught but they were not reaching many local populations, who were often most in need.”
In most areas of the world, a majority of fish is caught by international companies and subsequently sold to other, typically more affluent, nations, while locals often end up forgoing their native diets for processed food. As reported by SciDev.net, 90% of the fish caught in Mauritania is caught by foreign fishing fleets and never enters the local market.
In other areas, such as Namibia, even though a majority of the fishing fleets are locally owned, the fish is still exported. Edward Allison, professor at the University of Washington’s School of Marine and Environmental Affairs told SciDev.net,14 “These transformed diets suck fish towards the mouths of the better-off, meaning that not everyone who might benefit from consuming fish gets to eat it.”
Fairer Fish Trade Would Curtail Nutrient Deficiencies
For example, common nutrient deficiencies plaguing West Africa are zinc, iron and vitamin A deficiency. Yet these three nutrients are readily available in the fish caught off the West African coast, the researchers found, and in amounts sufficiently high to meet the nutritional needs of those living within 100 kilometers of the coast.
As explained by the authors:15
“Micronutrient deficiencies account for an estimated one million premature deaths annually, and for some nations can reduce gross domestic product by up to 11%, highlighting the need for food policies that focus on improving nutrition rather than simply increasing the volume of food produced.
People gain nutrients from a varied diet, although fish — which are a rich source of bioavailable micronutrients that are essential to human health — are often overlooked.
A lack of understanding of the nutrient composition of most fish and how nutrient yields vary among fisheries has hindered the policy shifts that are needed to effectively harness the potential of fisheries for food and nutrition security.
Here, using the concentration of 7 nutrients in more than 350 species of marine fish, we estimate how environmental and ecological traits predict nutrient content of marine finfish species … and compare nutrient yields to the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in human populations …
For a number of countries in which nutrient intakes are inadequate, nutrients available in marine finfish catches exceed the dietary requirements for populations that live within 100 km of the coast, and a fraction of current landings could be particularly impactful for children under 5 years of age.
Our analyses suggest that fish-based food strategies have the potential to substantially contribute to global food and nutrition security.”
As reported by SciDev.net,16 were Namibia to retain just 9% of its local fish catches, it would resolve the nation’s iron deficiency. In Kiribati, a mere 1% of the fish catches would help resolve calcium deficiencies affecting 82% of the island nation’s population.
In conclusion, the study proposes a number of policy recommendations aimed at improving the availability of fish around the world. Among them, supporting small-scale local fisheries and implementing global fish trade guidelines to ensure fairer distribution. As noted by SciDev.net:17
“Xavier Basurto, an associate professor at the Nicholas School of the Environment at Duke University in the United States, believes that the processing of highly nutritious fish into low-nutrient products for developed countries, including pet food, should also be curtailed.
‘For instance, one could regulate certain types of catch not to be used as fish meal for export because of its nutritional value for low-income populations,’ he suggested.”
Your Blood Level, Not the Dosage, Is Key
Getting back to omega-3, data suggest deficiency in these important nutrients may be more prevalent than suspected.18 One of the reasons for this is because omega-3 testing is rather new. The assay to measure omega-3 in your red blood cells was developed by William Harris, Ph.D., in 2004. Before that, an assay was not available.
The omega-3 index is expressed as a percent of all fatty acids in the red blood cell membrane.19 Data from studies Harris performed showed an ideal, healthy range of omega-3 is between 8% and 12%.20
Importantly, the only way to determine your omega-3 status is through testing, which is now easy to do. GrassrootsHealth, a nonprofit public health research organization, has several cost-effective options available as part of its various consumer-sponsored nutrient research projects,21 the aim of which is to establish population-based recommendations based on science-backed data.
For example, ongoing research by GrassrootsHealth has firmly established that a vitamin D level of 20 ng/mL is nowhere near sufficient; the ideal range for disease prevention is actually between 60 and 80 ng/mL. Their research also shows a whopping 80% of cancer recurrences could be prevented simply by raising vitamin D to 60 ng/mL.
GrassrootsHealth is conducting the same kind of consumer-sponsored research for omega-3 and magnesium. For omega-3, you have four test options:
- Omega-3 index test kit
- Vitamin D and Omega-3 test kit
- Vitamin D, Magnesium and Omega 3 test kit
- Vitamin D, Magnesium and Omega 3 PLUS Elements test kit — This kit includes measurements of essential minerals (magnesium, selenium, zinc and copper) as well as harmful heavy metals (cadmium, lead and mercury)
Each kit contains instructions for how to collect your blood sample. You then mail in your sample and fill out a quick online health questionnaire through GrassrootsHealth.
Your participation in this research project will enable GrassrootsHealth researchers to provide accurate data about the omega-3 status in the population, the level at which disease prevention is actually obtained, and guidance on dosing to achieve optimal levels.
All of this is crucial information that can go a long way toward improving public health. Your test results will be emailed to you in about 10 to 20 days after your samples are received. Based on your index result, you will then be able to use GrassrootsHealth’s omega-3 index calculator22 to determine the dosage you may require to raise your current level to your chosen target level.
Your health data are used anonymously. Please note that 100% of the proceeds from the kits go to fund the research project. I do not charge anything extra as a distributor of these test kits.
Don’t Assume Your Intake Is Adequate
I strongly urge you to avoid the temptation to assume that your omega-3 index is sufficient just because you’re eating fish or taking a supplement. Many fish do not contain high omega-3 levels (you have to eat cold-water fatty fish to reap that benefit), and many fish oil supplements are synthetic with questionable efficacy.
As reported by GrassrootsHealth,23 of the first 135 participants in the D*action + Omega-3 home testing project, a surprising 85% had an omega-3 index below 8%, which is the lower threshold for sufficiency, putting them at increased risk for heart disease24 and other chronic diseases, as well as death from any cause. To learn more about the benefits of optimizing your level, see “How Much Omega-3 Do You Need?”
As reported by GrassrootsHealth:25
“In studies using a measurement called the Omega-3 Index test, individuals with a low Omega-3 Index were shown to have a 10-fold higher risk of death compared to those with a high index … An Omega-3 Index between 8% and 12% was associated with lower risk for death from cardiovascular disease, versus an index less than 4%.”
1 Which of the following is a risk factor for chronic diarrhea?
2 Phosphate fertilizer may contribute to the toxic contamination of our food supply because:
3 Which of the following organizations is NOT an industry front group?
4 Which of the following therapies has been shown to benefit patients in geriatrics, critical care, rehabilitation, oncology, psychiatry, rheumatology and terminal care alike?
5 Which of the following supplements has been shown to lower the risk of cardiovascular events relating to exertion (intense exercise)?
6 Which of the following is a possible side effect of antidepressants and other psychiatric drugs that everyone needs to be aware of?
7 The following has been shown to have the greatest impact on long-term health and longevity, and is a constant variable in blue zones, which have the highest ratio of centenarians in the world:
By Anna Von Reitz
Hypocrisy: Anti-Racism Progressives Ban White People From Speaking
The post Hypocrisy: Anti-Racism Progressives Ban White People From Speaking appeared on Stillness in the Storm.
Last month, after an oil field was bombed in Saudi Arabia, President Donald Trump tweeted that “we are waiting to hear from the Kingdom…” to find out “under what terms we would proceed” to send them our military assets.
The president of the United States admitted that he was waiting on orders to be handed down from a theocratic dictatorship in Saudi Arabia on how to use the men and women in the US armed forces.
Naturally, this prompted backlash from all sides, and for good reason. Saudi Arabia is the largest state sponsor of terrorism in the world and they were behind the largest terror attack ever carried out on American soil, 9/11.
"About a third of the whole CIA budget went to media propaganda operations… We're talking about hundreds of millions of dollars a year just for that… close to a billion dollars are being spent every year by the United States on secret propaganda." – Testimony of William Schaap to Congress 252
In 1948, the United States began the Marshall Plan, an initiative to help the devastated Europe recover from the War. The CIA decided to siphon funds to create the Office of Policy Coordination, which would become the covert action branch of the Agency. 253
It was under this program that Operation Mockingbird, a domestic propaganda campaign aimed at promoting the views of the CIA within the media, began. From the onset, Operation Mockingbird was one of the most sensitive of the CIA's operations, with recruitment of journalists and training of intelligence officers for propaganda purposes usually undertaken by Director Allen Dulles himself or his direct peers. 254