Weekly Health Quiz: COVID-19, Vaccination and Forbes

1 The primary mechanism of action behind hydroxychloroquine’s ability to prevent and treat COVID-19 is its:

  • Ability to shuttle zinc into cells

    HCQ is a zinc ionophore, meaning it shuttles zinc into the cell, and there’s compelling evidence to suggest the primary benefit of the HCQ protocol actually comes from the zinc, which effectively inhibits viral replication. Learn more.

  • Direct antiviral activity
  • Antibacterial activity
  • Anti-clotting ability

2 Which of the following are examples of side effects reported after COVID-19 vaccination?

  • Improved taste and smell
  • Exhaustion, severe allergic reactions and inflammatory syndromes

    Aside from sudden death, examples of side effects include persistent malaise and extreme exhaustion, severe allergic, including anaphylactic reactions, multisystem inflammatory syndrome, psychological disturbances, seizures, convulsions and paralysis, including Bell’s Palsy. Learn more.

  • General feeling of well-being
  • Audiovisual hallucinations

3 Almost everything you see and hear in the mainstream media comes from:

  • Independent journalists
  • Foreign correspondents
  • One of three global news agencies

    Most of the international news coverage in Western media is provided by only three global news agencies, The Associated Press (AP), Reuters and Agence France-Presse (AFP). The key role played by these agencies means Western media often report on the same topics, even using the same wording. Learn more.

  • Corporate press releases

4 The majority owner of Forbes magazine is:

  • The Forbes family
  • A U.S. based left-leaning political organization
  • A Venezuelan dictator
  • A Chinese media investment company

    In 2014, the Chinese company Integrated Whale Media Investments bought 95% controlling interest in Forbes. Evidence shows Forbes has, since being bought up by a Chinese media investment company in 2014, lost its editorial independence. Learn more.

5 Which of the following genetic engineering technologies was recently used to create a SARS-CoV-2 variant capable of evading neutralizing antibodies?

  • Serial passaging

    Scientists are already cooking up more virulent and lethal versions of SARS-CoV-2. By serial passaging live SARS-CoV-2 in plasma obtained from a recovered COVID-19 patient who had high amounts of neutralizing antibodies in it, the virus ended up mutating to evade the antibodies. Learn more.

  • CRISPR
  • Virtual genetic modeling
  • Genetic cloning

6 In order for treatment with hydroxychloroquine and zinc to be effective, you must begin treatment:

  • After appropriate randomized controlled trials are completed
  • Within the first five days of symptom onset

    Early treatment is crucial. During the first five days of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the viral load remains fairly steady. Around Day 5, it exponentially increases, potentially overwhelming your immune system. To prevent complications, treatment with HCQ and zinc needs to begin within the first five days of symptom onset. Learn more.

  • After mechanical ventilation has begun
  • Within the first seven days of symptom onset

Can Beta-Glucans Be a Weapon Against Infections?

Beta-glucans are naturally occurring long-chain carbohydrates known as polysaccharides, found in yeasts, fungi, bacteria and certain plants, including seaweed.1

Widely available as a dietary supplement, beta-glucans have received little fanfare compared to other more popular supplements, but there is reason to believe they may be useful for stimulating the immune system and warding off everything from infectious diseases to cancer.2

At the foundation of their benefits may be the ability to ramp up the innate immune system, a mechanism first suggested by Dr. Rolf Seljelid, professor emeritus at the University of Tromsø in Norway. In the 1980s, he noticed that sea urchins have a unique ability to survive, and thrive, in very polluted waters, including those contaminated with bacteria- and virus-ridden hospital runoff.

“It struck me that they must have some quality that keeps them from getting sick. Something we know nothing about,” Seljelid told Science Norway. Part of his life’s work became uncovering what that “something” was, and it turned out to be beta-glucans.3

Beta-Glucans Protect Against Infection, Cancer

Seljelid’s early research revealed that a certain type of beta-glucan known as beta-1,3 / 1,6-glucan may be beneficial for the innate immune system, which is your first line defense made up of natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages and white blood cells like neutrophils.

He and colleagues conducted a study on mice, which found that those injected with beta-glucan were not affected by a dangerous bacterial infection, while animals that didn’t receive beta-glucan died. Beta-glucan doesn’t have antibacterial properties, so it was suspected that it may work by making the body’s immune system stronger and more able to fight off the infection.

This led Seljelid to suspect it might be useful in cancer, too, and his early research again yielded impressive results. When mice with cancerous tumors received beta-glucan intravenously, their tumors disappeared.4 “After only six hours, the tumors had begun to collapse in many of the mice given beta-glucan. Fourteen days later, the tumors were gone,” Seljelid told Science Norway.5

In fact, beta-glucans have been used as a cancer treatment in Japan since 1980, and according to a 2007 report in Medicina, beta-glucans can prevent oncogenesis — the process in which healthy cells become cancer cells — by protecting against carcinogens that damage cellular DNA.6

Beta-glucans also help reduce inflammation associated with cancer and fight against metastasis, cancer recurrence and tumor drug resistance.7 Decades later, the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York is conducting research into the combination of beta-glucans and cancer vaccines to treat children with severe neuroblastoma.

While only 40% to 50% of neuroblastoma patients typically live for five years after conventional treatments, those who received the beta-glucan along with the cancer vaccine had much higher survival rates.

“They have been working for years with a vaccine, which has a limited effect. But with the combination of the vaccine plus beta-glucan, around 90% of children were alive after five years. It is absolutely sensational,” Seljelid said.8

The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center has even applied for a patent for beta-1,3 / 1,6-glucan for use with cancer and along with vaccines for influenza. In January 2020, a team of Italian researchers further noted that beta-glucans appear to have a promising potential in the control of cancer:9

“A main feature of ?-glucans is their capacity to function as biological response modifiers, exerting regulatory effects on inflammation and shaping the effector functions of different innate and adaptive immunity cell populations. The potential to interfere with processes involved in the development or control of cancer makes ?-glucans interesting candidates as adjuvants in antitumor therapies as well as in cancer prevention strategies.”

Beta-Glucans Ward Off Bacterial, Viral Disease

Professor Jan Raa, Professor Emeritus at the University of Tromsø, also discovered beta-glucans’ infection-fighting abilities via early research — and quite by accident. While conducting a study on the use of bacteria and fungi as farmed salmon feed, 18 tanks of fish ended up contaminated by Hitra disease, a bacterial infection that’s often fatal to salmon.

Three of the tanks weren’t being used in the study, however, and Raa had mixed beta-glucan into their feed to see if it would have an effect on their health. It turned out that up to 90% of the salmon in non-beta-glucan tanks succumbed to Hitra disease, compared to only 20% of those fed beta-glucan. According to Science Norway:10

“Due to a coincidence and a catastrophic event, Raa had thus carried out a gigantic infection experiment which under normal circumstances, he would have never gotten permission to conduct. ‘I realized I had made a great discovery,’ he says. The incident resulted in several controlled infection trials that confirmed the observation, says Raa.”

Today, beta-glucans are widely used in animal feeds, including fish food pellets. Later work by Raa suggests that beta-glucan is also useful against viral infections like influenza. “[S]tudies we conducted at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, which showed that beta-1,3 / 1,6-glucan led to a sharp increase in T cells that protect very effectively against influenza virus,” Raa said.11

This prompted both Raa and Seljelid to recently contact the Norwegian Institute of Public Health to suggest researching whether beta-glucan could prevent COVID-19. Raa is also involved in a study in partnership with the EU looking at whether beta-glucan can ward off flu and COVID-19 in a nursing home setting.

Could Beta-Glucans Fight COVID-19?

In an August 2020 study published in Science of the Total Environment, researchers suggested beta-glucans may protect you from SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.12 One of the major complications of COVID-19 is pneumonia, which is sometimes accompanied by rapid replication of the virus.

During this rapid replication, your immune system releases proinflammatory cytokines that lead to an overreaction of the immune response called a cytokine storm. Cytokine storm can lead to lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and death.

In this study, researchers took beta-glucans extract from a form of shiitake mushroom called Lentinus edodes and combined it with a lung injury model in vitro. They found that beta-glucans reduced interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-6, two cytokines that can trigger the cytokine storm that causes ARDS in severe COVID-19 cases.

The beta-glucans also reduced oxidative stress and activated immune substances called macrophages that destroy potential invaders like viruses. The researchers concluded, “Further clinical studies are merited to refine ?-glucan as a countermeasure for tackling cytokine storm that causes ARDS, as evident with COVID-19.”13

In separate research published in Frontiers in Immunology on July 14, 2020, researchers also suggested that beta-glucans could help to bolster immune response to defend against COVID-19, and wrote, “Ultimately, we hypothesize that the use of oral ?-glucan in a prophylactic setting could be an effective way to boost immune responses and abrogate symptoms in COVID-19 …”14 Other research also supports beta-glucans’ role in fighting viral infections. For instance:

  • Marathon runners who took 250 milligrams (mg) of beta-glucans from brewer’s yeast for 28 days following a marathon were 37% less likely to contract a cold or flu symptoms compared to those taking a placebo.15
  • People who took 250 mg of beta-glucans per day for 90 days reported 43 fewer days with symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection compared to those taking a placebo.16
  • A 2013 study found that taking 900 mg of beta-glucans from brewer’s yeast for 16 weeks reduced the rate of cold infections by 25% and eased symptoms in those who got ill by 15%.17
  • A 2015 animal study found feeding mice beta-glucans for two weeks “significantly reduced the effects of influenza infection in total mortality,” likely by stimulating cellular and humoral immune reaction that led to a lower viral load.18

More Beta-Glucan Benefits

Aside from their anticancer and immune-stimulating effects, beta-glucans are thought to play a role in fat metabolism and may help support weight loss and optimal cholesterol levels.19 Beta-glucans may also help promote the growth of beneficial bacteria in your gut by acting like a prebiotic.

In one study, beta-glucans improved the growth rate of Lactobacillus plantarum in the gut in both unstressed and stressed conditions. Perhaps most importantly, beta-glucans were able to protect the probiotics from gastrointestinal stress caused by low pH, bile salts and digestive enzymes, increasing their survival rate as they traveled through the digestive system.20

Beta-glucans may even improve insulin resistance, as they’ve been shown to reduce post-meal glucose and insulin responses, improve insulin sensitivity in diabetic and nondiabetic individuals and help with glycemic control.21

Smaller amounts of beta-glucans may be required to achieve the same results compared to other types of soluble fiber known to affect insulin response. According to one group of researchers from the University of Toronto, “The fermentability of ?-glucans and their ability to form highly viscous solutions in the human gut may constitute the basis of their health benefits.”22

How Do Beta-Glucans Work?

There’s still debate over why, and how, beta-glucans actually work, considering they’re not absorbed by the body. “The problem with beta-glucans,” Science Norway reported, “… is that the body does not absorb them. They just whiz through the digestive tract and come out on the other side. Measurements have shown that almost nothing of the substance enters the blood.”23 So how do they work?

It’s not entirely known, but, according to the report, “Some researchers believe that the substance can affect our immune system by stimulating immune cells in the intestinal wall, without actually being absorbed by the body. Recent research has shown that the lining of the intestine is a very important part of the immune system.”24

Raa also suggests that the type of beta-glucans matter, with not all of them having a therapeutic effect. “For years, I have tried to explain to skeptics that there is only a certain chemical structure that works, namely one called beta-1,3 / 1,6-glucan. This is the one that is ‘recognized’ by animals and plants as danger signals that trigger immunological defense reactions,” he said.25

If you’re interested in exploring more, beta-glucan is widely available as a dietary supplement. You can also find beta-glucans in foods such as mushrooms (reishi, shiitake, maitake), baker’s yeast and seaweed.

Ominous B1 Deficiency Found Throughout Food Chain

Vitamin B1 (thiamine) is used by nearly all your cells, and helps to metabolize the carbohydrates and lipids in the foods you eat. It also facilitates converting your food into energy and boosting the flow of electrolytes in and out of your nerves and muscles. It’s considered “essential” because your body can’t produce it on its own; it must come from an outside source.

Thiamine is sometimes referred to as an “antistress” vitamin for its positive influence on your central nervous system, and it’s also important for healthy immune function. In addition to nutrients such as zinc and vitamins C and D, vitamin B1 (thiamine) may actually be crucial to protect against infectious respiratory illnesses such as COVID-19.

Thiamine deficiency syndrome (beriberi) has also been implicated in other types of severe infections and bears many similarities to sepsis. This is one of the reasons why thiamine is such an important part of Dr. Paul Marik’s sepsis treatment.1 Sepsis, in turn, is a major contributor in influenza deaths in general, and a primary cause for COVID-19 deaths specifically.

While thiamine deficiency is often the result of alcohol misuse, chronic infections, poor nutrition and/or malabsorption, recent research suggests vitamin B1 availability has dramatically declined throughout the food chain in recent years.2

Lack of Thiamine Is Disrupting Ecosystem

In a January 28, 2021, article in Hakai Magazine,3 Alastair Bland reviews findings showing certain marine ecosystems are being decimated by an apparent lack of thiamine. Problems were noticed in January 2020 at salmon hatcheries in California. Fish were acting disoriented and mortality was surprisingly high.

Initially, they feared a virus might be at play, but after digging through the medical literature, they found research discussing thiamine deficiency in marine life. As noted in the article, vitamin B1 is “a basic building block of life critical to the functioning of cells and in converting food into energy.”

Biologists tested the theory by dissolving thiamine powder into the water, and within hours, nearly all of the fish were acting normally again. Meanwhile, the behavior of fish in an untreated batch continued to decline. As a result of this research, many hatcheries took to applying thiamine, but the underlying problem still remains.

“Since the fish acquire thiamine by ingesting it through their food, and females pass nutrients to their eggs, the troubling condition indicated that something was amiss in the Pacific Ocean, the last place the fish eat before entering fresh water to spawn,” Bland writes, adding:

“California researchers now investigating the source of the salmon’s nutritional problems find themselves contributing to an international effort to understand thiamine deficiency, a disorder that seems to be on the rise in marine ecosystems across much of the planet.

It’s causing illness and death in birds, fish, invertebrates, and possibly mammals, leading scientists from Seattle to Scandinavia to suspect some unexplained process is compromising the foundation of the Earth’s food web by depleting ecosystems of this critical nutrient.”

What’s Causing Ecosystem-Wide Thiamine Deficiency?

As explained by Bland, “Thiamine originates in the lowest levels of the food web.” Certain species of bacteria, phytoplankton, fungi and even some plants are responsible for synthesizing thiamine from other precursor compounds.

From there, thiamine makes its way through both the animal and plant kingdoms. All organisms need it. In animals, enzymes interact with thiamine to generate cellular energy. Without sufficient amounts of thiamine, fundamental metabolic processes start to fail, causing neurological disturbances, reproductive problems and increased mortality.

While beriberi has been recognized as a serious health risk in humans for nearly 100 years, and thiamine supplementation has been standard practice for domesticated livestock such as sheep, cattle, mink and goats for several decades,4 the presence in and effect of thiamine deficiency on wildlife wasn’t discovered until the 1990s, when Canadian scientist John Fitzsimons started investigating the decline in Great Lakes trout.
Bland writes:5

“Studying lake trout born in captivity, Fitzsimons observed symptoms like hyperexcitability, loss of equilibrium, and other abnormal behavior.

He wondered if a nutritional deficiency was at play, and to test for this he dissolved various vitamin tablets in water and — using trout in different life stages, including fertilized eggs — administered the solutions to the fish, both through injection and baths.

The idea was to see which vitamin, if any, cured the condition. ‘It came down to a range of B vitamins, and it was only the thiamine that was able to reverse the signs I was seeing,’ he says.”

Since the publication of Fitzsimons’ findings in 1995, thiamine deficiency has been identified in dozens of animal species, including birds and moose. While severe deficiency has lethal consequences, sublethal deficiency can have insidiously devastating effects, including:6

  • Lowering strength and coordination
  • Reducing fertility
  • Impairing memory and causing other neurobehavioral deficits.7 In humans, thiamine deficiency has been shown to play a role in cases of delirium. In one study,8 45% of cancer patients suffering from delirium had thiamine deficiency, and 60% recovered when treated with intravenous thiamine
  • Paralysis
  • Loss of vocalization

B1 Deficiency May Be Responsible for Wildlife Declines

Thiamine deficiency is now suspected of driving declines in wildlife populations all across the northern hemisphere.9 Bland cites research showing marine and terrestrial wildlife populations declined by half between 1970 and 2012. Between 1950 and 2010, the global seabird population declined by 70%.10

While habitat loss and other environmental factors are known to impact biodiversity, these declines are allegedly occurring far faster than can be explained by such factors. Researchers strongly suspect human involvement, but how?

“Scientists are floating various explanations for what’s depriving organisms of this nutrient, and some believe that changing environmental conditions, especially in the ocean, may be stifling thiamine production or its transfer between producers and the animals that eat them,” Bland writes.11

“Sergio Sañudo-Wilhelmy, a University of Southern California biogeochemist, says warming ocean water could be affecting the populations of microorganisms that produce thiamine and other vitamins, potentially upsetting basic chemical balances that marine ecosystems depend on.

‘In different temperatures, different phytoplankton and bacteria grow faster,’ he says. This, he explains, could hypothetically allow microorganisms that do not produce thiamine — but, instead, acquire it through their diet — to outcompete the thiamine producers, effectively reducing thiamine concentrations in the food web.”

The transfer of thiamine up the food chain may be blocked by a number of factors, including overfishing. But there’s yet another possibility, and that is the overabundance of thiaminase, an enzyme that destroys thiamine. Thiaminase is naturally present in certain microorganisms, plants and fish that have adapted to use it to their advantage.

“When larger animals eat prey containing thiaminase, the enzyme rapidly destroys thiamine and can lead to a nutritional deficiency in the predator,” Bland explains. One thiaminase-rich species is an invasive species of herring called alewife, which during the 20th century have spread through the Great Lakes, displacing native species.

This, some researchers believe, has led to chronic and severe thiamine deficiency in larger fish species. “The Great Lakes’ saga illustrates the outsized impact that one single nutrient can have on an entire ecosystem,” Bland writes.

An overabundance of thiaminase-containing species also appears to be responsible for the decline in Sacramento River salmon. In this case, northern anchovy, which is rich in thiaminase, is the suspected culprit.

Unfortunately, few answers have emerged as of yet. Giving thiamine to fish in hatcheries is not a long-lasting solution, because once they re-enter the wild, the deficiency reemerges. One scientist likened the practice to “sending a kid with a fever off to school after giving them a Tylenol.”12

Signs and Symptoms of Thiamine Deficiency

Considering both plants and wildlife are becoming increasingly thiamine-deficient, it’s logical to suspect that this deficiency is becoming more common in the human population as well. Early symptoms of thiamine deficiency include:13,14

  • Fatigue and muscle weakness
  • Confusion and/or memory problems
  • Loss of appetite and weight loss
  • Numbness or tingling in arms or legs

As your deficiency grows more severe, the deficiency can progress into one of four types of beriberi:15

  • Paralytic or nervous beriberi (aka “dry beriberi”) — Damage or dysfunction of one or more nerves in your nervous system, resulting in numbness, tingling and/or exaggerated reflexes
  • Cardiac (“wet”) beriberi — Neurological and cardiovascular issues, including racing heart rate, enlarged heart, edema, breathing problems and heart failure
  • Gastrointestinal beriberi — Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and lactic acidosis
  • Cerebral beriberi — Wernicke’s encephalopathy, cerebellar dysfunction causing abnormal eye movements, ataxia (lack of muscle coordination) and cognitive impairments. If left untreated, it can progress to Korsakoff’s psychosis, a chronic brain disorder that presents as amnesia, confusion, short-term memory loss, confabulation (fabricated or misinterpreted memories) and in severe cases, seizures

Thiamine is frequently recommended and given to people struggling with alcohol addiction, as alcohol consumption reduces absorption of the vitamin in your gastrointestinal tract. An estimated 80% of alcoholics are deficient in thiamine and therefore more prone to the side effects and conditions above.16

Thiamine is also very important for those with autoimmune diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and Hashimoto’s (a thyroid autoimmune disorder).17 In case studies,18,19 thiamine supplementation has been shown to improve fatigue in autoimmune patients in just a few days.

Interestingly, in one of these studies,20 which looked at patients with IBD, patients responded favorably to supplementation even though they all had “normal” baseline levels.

The authors speculate that thiamine deficiency symptoms in such cases may be related to enzymatic defects or dysfunction of the thiamine transport mechanism (opposed to being an absorption problem), which can be overcome by giving large quantities of thiamine.

Thiamine in Infectious Disease

As mentioned earlier, thiamine deficiency has also been implicated in severe infections, including COVID-19. In fact, researchers have noted that, based on what we know about B vitamins’ effects on the immune system, supplementation may be a useful adjunct to other COVID-19 prevention and treatment strategies. You can learn more about this in “B Vitamins Might Help Prevent Worst COVID-19 Outcomes.”

More generally, a 2016 study21 in the journal Psychosomatics sought to investigate the connection between thiamine and infectious disease by looking at 68 patients with Korsakoff syndrome.

Thirty-five of them suffered severe infections during the acute phase of the illness, including meningitis, pneumonia and sepsis, making the authors conclude that “Infections may be the presenting manifestation of thiamine deficiency.”

Another study22 published in 2018 found thiamine helps limit Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) by regulating your innate immunity. According to this paper:

“… vitamin B1 promotes the protective immune response to limit the survival of MTB within macrophages and in vivo … Vitamin B1 promotes macrophage polarization into classically activated phenotypes with strong microbicidal activity and enhanced tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6 expression at least in part by promoting nuclear factor-?B signaling.

In addition, vitamin B1increases mitochondrial respiration and lipid metabolism … Our data demonstrate important functions of thiamineVB1 in regulating innate immune responses against MTB and reveal novel mechanisms by which vitamin B1 exerts its function in macrophages.”

Thiamine deficiency is also associated with the development of high fever, and according to a letter to the editor,23 “Is Parenteral Thiamin a Super Antibiotic?” published in the Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism in 2018, thiamine injections are “likely to eradicate microbial infections” causing the fever.

By dramatically increasing susceptibility to infections, thiamine deficiency could potentially have the ability to impact the spread of just about any pandemic infectious disease — including COVID-19.

Are You Getting Enough B Vitamins?

While biologists struggle to find an ecosystem-wide solution for thiamine deficiency in the food chain, the solution for us, in the meantime, may be to make sure we get enough thiamine through supplementation. Evidence suggests thiamine insufficiency or deficiency can develop in as little as two weeks, as its half-life in your body is only nine to 18 days.24

Ideally, you can select a high-quality food-based supplement containing a broad spectrum of B vitamins to avoid creating an imbalance. The following guidelines will also help protect or improve your thiamine status:

Limit your sugar and refined grain intake — As noted by the World Health Organization,25 “Thiamine deficiency occurs where the diet consists mainly of milled white cereals, including polished rice, and wheat flour, all very poor sources of thiamine.”

Simple carbs also have antithiaminergic properties,26 and raise your thiamine requirement for the simple fact that thiamin is used up in the metabolism of glucose.

Eat fermented foods — The entire B group vitamin series is produced within your gut provided you have a healthy gut microbiome. Eating real food, ideally organic, along with fermented foods will provide your microbiome with important fiber and beneficial bacteria to help optimize your internal vitamin B production as well.

Avoid excessive alcohol consumption, as alcohol inhibits thiamine absorption, and frequent use of diuretics, as they will cause thiamine-loss.

Avoid sulfite-rich foods and beverages such as nonorganic processed meats, wine and lager, as sulfites have antithiamine effects.

Correct any suspected magnesium insufficiency or deficiency, as magnesium is required as a cofactor in the conversion of thiamine.

Daily Intake Recommendations

While individual requirements can vary widely, the typical daily intake recommendations for B vitamins are as follows:

Nutrient Supplement Recommendations

Thiamine (B1)

Adult men and women need 1.2 and 1.1 mg respectively each day.27 If you have symptoms of thiamine deficiency, you may need higher doses.

Thiamine is water-soluble and nontoxic, even at very high doses, so you’re unlikely to do harm.

Doses between 3 grams and 8 grams per day have been used in the treatment of Alzheimer’s without ill effect.

Riboflavin (B2)

Suggested daily intake is about 1.1 mg for women and 1.3 mg for men.28

Niacin (B3)

The dietary reference intake established by the Food and Nutrition Board ranges from 14 to 18 mg per day for adults.

Higher amounts are recommended depending on your condition. For a list of recommended dosages, see the Mayo Clinic’s website.29

Vitamin B6

Nutritional yeast (not to be confused with Brewer’s yeast or other active yeasts) is an excellent source of B vitamins, especially B6.30

One serving (2 tablespoons) contains nearly 10 mg of vitamin B6, and the daily recommended intake is only 1.3 mg.31

B8 (inositol/biotin)

B8 is not recognized as an essential nutrient and no recommended daily intake has been set. That said, it’s believed you need about 30 mcg per day.32

Vitamin B8 is sometimes listed as biotin on supplements. Brewer’s yeast is a natural supplemental source.33

Folate (B9)

Folic acid is a synthetic type of B vitamin used in supplements; folate is the natural form found in foods. (Think: Folate comes from foliage, edible leafy plants.)

For folic acid to be of use, it must first be activated into its biologically active form (L-5-MTHF).

This is the form able to cross the blood-brain barrier to give you the brain benefits noted.

Nearly half the population has difficulty converting folic acid into the bioactive form due to a genetic reduction in enzyme activity.

For this reason, if you take a B-vitamin supplement, make sure it contains natural folate rather than synthetic folic acid.

Nutritional yeast is an excellent source.34 Adults need about 400 mcg of folate per day.35

Vitamin B12

Nutritional yeast seasoning is also high in B12, and is highly recommended for vegetarians and vegans.

One serving (2 tablespoons) provides about 67 mcg of natural vitamin B12.36

Sublingual (under-the-tongue) fine mist spray or vitamin B12 injections are also effective, as they allow the large B12 molecule to be absorbed directly into your bloodstream.

Cat Report

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To share today’s Cat Report, please use this link: https://archive.is/bm9rY

COVID-19 VACCINE: A Slow-Motion Genocidal Bioweapon that Forever Alters the Genetic Blueprint and Damages the Immune System of Those Who Somehow Survive It Read All About it.

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This is a must-read for advanced AIM students: 

Digital Currencies and the future of the monetary system

“Clearly, if digital money is to exist, the central bank must play a pivotal role, guaranteeing the stability of value, ensuring the elasticity of the aggregate supply of such money, and overseeing the overall security of the system. Such a system must not fail and cannot tolerate any serious mistakes.”

(Sounds like Dominion money rigging to us.)

This convoluted way of controlling the world’s monetary system will lead to complete tyranny over humanity, and it’s coming…unless We the People take away the Pilgrim’s ability to control the world’s money. Now, more than ever, patriots, we must secure the retail market of silver. By doing so we are ‘organically’ decentralizing our global money system, getting it out of central bank control and into the hands of millions of citizens (at least if they were ‘woke’ enough to know what is going on).

The lack of silver in the market will create a supply deficit, driving the price of physical silver to the Moon. It also becomes difficult to make killer technological devices like 5G units because they require silver which will be too expensive and rare for mass production.

Such an amazing metal – SILVER. It can enslave humanity or set us free. The decision is for us to make.  

There is nothing more powerful than an idea whose time has come. Victor Hugo

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Let me explain how we’re going to take down JP Morgan together and stop the manipulation of this precious substance and raise it from $25 to $1000! Read this.

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I enjoyed listening to Clif High expose the Deceivers and Grifters: Charlie Ward, Simon Parkes, Sasha Stone, and Robert David Steele. When Clif goes into woo-woo, we are cautious as he has a tendency, in our opinion, to be a spiritual materialist. He discusses the ethers in the video, but we aren’t sure what his point of view is. Below we remind you that Douglas has written a book on the ethers which is available free for download:

The Eternal Ethers: A Theory of Everything

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Video: Buying and Selling Silver Locally with the New Premiums!

VIDEO Extracting Ghost Town Silver

VIDEO ‘The Big Silver Short’ based on the movie ‘The Big Short’

VIDEO Story Time: 300oz @ Spot in Silver Shortage! Unboxing

VIDEO #Silver? bullet to kill the Wolf of #WallStreet? and how #Wallstreetbets? will #Silversqueeze

VIDEO Former DNI James Clapper Rats Out Pence, Roberts, Rosenstein & Ryan

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GAB with the GABriels

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Tracking Sales – 93 per hour 10 oz Silver Bars (JM Bullion)

We added a new link to the AIM app. The logo below will take you to WallStreetSilver on Reddit. The primary battle in the Great Information War has moved into the financial sector.

GAB CEO Goes On The Record: “We know 100% for a fact that Jared Kushner is actively trying to keep Trump off Gab”

Florida Governor Ron DeSantis Discusses Economy and The False Narratives Behind COVID Lockdowns

$3.2T in stimulus. So far. We’ve built no new factories. No new permanent hospitals. No airports. No highways. No schools. No broadband. No infrastructure of any kind. We jacked stocks and handed out welfare. But we did nothing to move America forward. Source.

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Worth a Look: Is Freedom Box a Web 3.0 Building Block?

Run your digital services from your home. FreedomBox is a private server for non-experts: it lets you install and configure server applications with only a few clicks. It runs on cheap hardware of your choice, uses your internet connection and power, and is under your control.  https://www.freedombox.org/

Michel Chossudovsky: The Corona “Pandemic” Timeline: What Happened in January – March 2020?

The Corona “Pandemic” Timeline: What Happened in January – March 2020? To read the E-Book including a detailed analysis pertaining the economic and financial dimensions (Chapters IV, V and IX) click here: The 2020 Worldwide Corona Crisis: Destroying Civil Society, Engineered Economic Depression, Global Coup d’État and the “Great Reset” Phi Beta Iota: Professor Chossudovski is …

Mongoose: They Stormed the Capitol. Their Apps Tracked Them

Excellent article on current capabilities — not from leaked data as much as easily available to authorities.  The PROBLEM is that traitors, elite pedophiles, and white collar criminals have “captured” all of these “government” capabilities and can use them to hunt down and eliminate patriots. They Stormed the Capitol. Their Apps Tracked Them Phi Beta …